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Flashcards in Evolution Deck (13):
0

The bones of a human arm are homologous to structures in all of the following EXCEPT:

A. Bat wing C. Whale flipper E. Bird wing
B. Butterfly wing D. Frog forelimb

B. Butterfly wing

1

Which of the following statements best summarizes organic evolution as it is viewed by modern evolutionists?

A. It is the differential survival and reproduction of the most fit phenotypes.
B. It is synonymous with the process of gene flow.
C. It is the descent of humans from the present-day great apes.
D. It is goal directed.
E. It represents the results of selection for acquired characteristics.

A. It is the differential survival and reproduction of the most fit phenotypes.

2

The ancestors of land plants most likely resembled modern day members of the:

A. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) D. Chrysophyta (diatoms and
B. Rhodophyta (red algae). golden-brown algae)
C. Phaeophyta (brown algae) E. Chlorophyta

E. Chlorophyta

3

Which of the following is a correct statement about mutations?

A. They are the source of variation for evolution.
B. They are irreversible.
C. They occur in germ cells but not in somatic cells.
D. They are most often beneficial to the organisms in which they occur.
E. They drive evolution by creating mutation pressures.

A. They are the source of variation for evolution.

4

The method of classification by Linnaeus is based on differences in:

A. Method of feeding
B. Chemical composition of genetic material
C. Location of habitat
D. Organism all structure
E. Means of locomotion

D. Organism all structure

5

Although the seal and the penguin both have streamlined, fishlike bodies with a layer of insulating fat, they are not closely related. This similarity results from:

A. Parallel evolution C. Coevolution E. Convergent
B. Adaptive radiation D. Homologous evolution evolution

E. Convergent evolution

6

Which of the following is probably the best explanation for the fact that Antarctic penguins cannot fly, although there is evidence that millions of years ago their ancestors could do so?

A. The Antarctic home of the penguins is flat and barren; therefore there is no place to fly.
B. Ancestral penguins without large wings were better able to swim and feed in the water; therefore they passed their genes for shorter wing structure on to their offspring.
C. Penguins live on land and feed in the water; therefore they have no need to fly.
D. Ancestral penguins did not use their wings for long periods of time; therefore today's penguins have only tiny, nonfunctional wings.
E. The cold and wind of Antarctica make flight impossible; therefore penguins that live there have lost the ability to fly.

B. Ancestral penguins without large wings were better able to swim and feed in the water; therefore they passed their genes for shorter wing structure on to their offspring.

7

The appearance of a fertile, polyploid individual within a population of diploid organisms is a possible source of a new species. If this individual is capable of reproducing to form a new population, scientists would consider this to be an example of:

A. Genetic drift D. Allopatric speciation
B. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium E. Polygenic inheritance
C. Sympatric speciation

C. Sympatric speciation

8

Recent studies of the fossil record indicate that evolution may proceed in short "fits" and "starts" with long intervening periods of little or no activity. This concept of evolution is known as:

A. Lamarckism C. Founder effect E. Punctuated equilibrium
B. Darwinism D. Gradualism

E. Punctuated equilibrium

9

The allele for unattached earlobes (E), is dominant over allele (e), for attached earlobes. If 16% of the population has attached earlobes, what percentage of the individuals in this population show the dominant trait? Assume the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

A. 36% B. 16% C. 60% D. 48% E. 84%

E. 84%

10

All of the following apply to members of a species EXCEPT:

A. They share a common gene pool.
B. They can interbreed with one another.
C. They are reproductively isolated from other species.
D. They regularly produce infertile offspring.
E. They usually do not inter breed with members of other species.

D. They regularly produce infertile offspring.

11

All members of which of the following groups have the greatest number of characteristics in common?

A. Order B. Class C. Family D. Genus E. Phylum

D. Genus

12

Which of the following statements best describes the effect of genetic drift on the gene frequencies of a population?

A. Mutations over time cause gene frequencies to change.
B. Chance alone can cause significant changes in gene frequencies of small populations.
C. Selections against one allele causes gene frequencies to change.
D. Genes leave a population through emigration, thus changing the gene frequencies.
E. Genes enter a population through immigration, thus changing gene frequencies.

B. Chance alone can cause significant changes in gene frequencies of small populations.