Ecology and Life forms #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ecology and Life forms #3 Deck (51):
1

Classification

2 Domains
1 modern bacteria
2 Archaea: ancient extremophiles with different cell wall; and histones like eukaryotes

2

Structure of bacteria
size
shape
cell parts

Size: 1-10μm
Shape:
cocci-round
bacillus-hot dog
spirilla-twisted
Cell parts:
ribosomes
chromosomes
plasmids
peptidoglycan cell wall( sugar and protein)

3

bacteria reproduction

asexual
binary fission

4

bacterial conjugation

pass plasmids through mating bridge/PILI

5

anaerobe

dies when exposed to oxygen

6

aerobe

dies without oxygen

7

tetanus

in a ball of rust there is bacteria, sitting on metal that rust the bacteria could get inside of you if you step on rusted needle

8

photoautotroph

uses light as food/energy

9

chemoautotroph

uses chemicals like nitrites and H2S for energy (cave bacteria)

10

chemoheterotroph

get energy by eating organic food

11

bioremediation

help get rid of waste ( septic tanks, toxic waste)

12

decomposer

break down our garbage and return elements that the earth needs

13

Protista
general traits
examples
effect our life
fungi like protist
animal like protist

General traits:
eukaryotes
most unicellular
most asexual
some consumer
some producers
Examples:
seaweeds/kelp
algae
Effect our life:
make up 70% of oxygen we breathe
important as food (fish eat algae)
commercial uses paints, thickener, ice cream
Fungi like protist:
ex. slime molds
features: unicellular and multicellular stages

14

Fungus
food
structure
reproduction
cell wall
uses
problems

Food: heterotrophic decomposers
Structure:
mycelium- long continuous thread of fungus cells
Reproduction: spores, asexual
Cell wall: chitin
Uses:
food industry-wine, beer (yeast-unicellular) bread
most expensive fungus around $1000 (truffle) picks up flavors well, dog trained to look for truffle. Some fungus kill bacteria (penicillin) medicine
Problems:
mold, rot
infections- yeast infection, athletes foot
Ergots- fungus that grows on grain. Salem witches thought to be stoned on Ergots from bread. (makes high)

15

Plants
kingdom traits
organ function

Kingdom traits: photoautotroph, photosynthesis
sexual reproduction
multicellular
Organ function:
roots- absorb water minerals, anchor, store starch
stem- support, transport 2 vascular tissue; phloem, xylem
leaves- photosynthesis, stomata; gas exchange
reproductive structures- flower; to attract pollinators (nectar, colors, smells). seed bearing structures; dry fruits (seeds, beans, nuts)

16

Ecology

The study of the interactions between life forms and their environment

17

Biosphere

The region of the earth where life exists

18

Biome

Specific regions of earth identified by their climate and life forms

19

Tropical Forest

Climate: High temperature, heavy rainfall
Vegetation: tall trees
Animals: frog, monkey, toucan, sloth

20

Savannas

Climate: Tropical, high temperature, less rainfall than tropical rainforest
Vegetation: grasslands, scattered trees
Animals: lion, elephant, hippo, giraffe

21

Desert

Climate:Hot, dry
Vegetation: cacti, succulents
Animals: snake, mice, lizards

22

Grassland

Climate: Season droughts,occasional fires, less water and lower temperatures than savannas
Vegetation:grasses
Animals: prairie dogs, bison, buffalo, antelope

23

Deciduous Forest

Climate: warm summer, cold winters, moderate precipitation
Vegetation: Deciduous trees
Animals: bear, badger, hedgehog, deer

24

Coniferous Forest (evergreen)

Climate: cold winters, heavy snow
Vegetation: cone-bearing trees
Animals: bear, moose

25

Tundra

Climate: very cold, permafrost, high winds, little rainfall
Vegetation: grasses, sedges
Animals: reindeer, arctic fox, polar bear

26

Chaparral (scrub forest)

Climate: temperate, heat in summers, fires
Vegetation:bushes, shrubs, oak trees
Animals: bear, deer, mountain lion, hawk

27

Ecosystem

a given area's abiotic and biotic features

28

Abiotic

non-living; sun, minerals

29

Biotic

living; fungus, plants

30

community

different populations of species living in the same area

31

Ecological succession

The change in an environment following a disturbance ( fire, volcano)

32

NICHE

an organisms habitat and role in that habitat

33

Energy flow

Energy enters an ecosystem as light and is converted to chemical energy like sugar by plants. It will be lost from the ecosystem as heat

34

Food chain

pathway of food transfer from one trophic level to another

35

Food web

a pattern of feeding of an ecosystem's interconnected food chains

36

10% energy efficiency rule

only about 10% of the energy in one trophic level is passed to the next level

37

Energy pyramid

emphasizes energy loss from each trophic level

38

Why are most food chains limited to only 3 or 4 levels

There is not enough energy at the top of the energy pyramid to support another trophic level

39

number pyramid

Depicts the number of organisms in each trophic level of an ecosystem

40

chemical cycles

A series of steps between organisms and their environment to cycle nutrients in an ecosystem.

41

Carbon cycle process

photosynthesis-
input CO2
output C6 H12 O6 (sugars)
consumption-
input C6 H12 O6 (sugars)
output CO2, waste
cell respiration
input C6 H12 O6
output CO2
decomposition
input waste
output CO2

42

condensation

process of water vapor cooling to form clouds

43

evaporation

process of liquid water becoming a gas

44

precipitation

process of water vapor condensing and falling to Earth

45

transpiration

process when water vapor exits plant leaves through the stomata

46

Biological magnification

Causes: Process when the concentration of toxins accumulate through trophic levels of a food chain. Phenomenon in which the concentration of a toxin in each organism of food chain is increased
Damaging results: Rachel Carson noticed DDT affected ability to make thick egg shell, shells break when birds sit to warm them

47

Ozone depletion

Causes: Accumulation of chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) an freon (used in air conditioning, fridge, and styro foam
Damaging results: skin cancer, eye issues, immune systems, plants trees

48

Greenhouse effect

Causes: Accumulation of CO2 in atmosphere that blankets the earth trapping in the sun's heat
Damaging results: melting glaciers, floods. warm tundra permafrost, increase fire, coral reef bleach, disease spread ( malaria, mosquito)

49

Deforestation

Causes: two acres of rain forest destroyed every second
Damaging results: loss of biodiversity, climate change, mine, build roads, oil drilling

50

Acid rain

Causes: excessive sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from exhaust.
SOx and NOx compounds released from factory exhaust
Damaging results: ruins the soil for plants, destroy monuments and corrodes cars

51

Population

Causes:women who don't have education or opportunity have more kids. China/india have most population. Have many children to have more workers for the family.
Damaging results: Population relates to poverty. Many kids will die
Solution: female literacy, give education and job