Natural Selection Chapter #2 Flashcards Preview

Biology > Natural Selection Chapter #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Natural Selection Chapter #2 Deck (74):
1

Fossils

preserved remain of an organism
ICE
TAR
AMBER
SEDIMENTARY

2

Mineralization (petrification)

When a structure trapped in sediments is replaced by minerals

3

Relative dating

Uses mathematical formulas to study the amount of radioactive isotopes in a fossil

4

Why do isotopes decay?

Atoms with different number of neutrons the wrong number of neutrons, it is not stable

5

Where are radioactive isotopes found?

Natural processes like solar radiation and star formation

6

Half-life

the amount of time it takes half a radioactive isotope to decay into a stable element

7

C-14 becomes N in ... years

5730( recent bones)

8

U-238 becomes Pb in .... years

4.5 billion years ( old bones)

9

Evolution

All of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time

10

Gradualism

the theory that the Earth has been slowly shaped by natural forces

11

Who tried to explain how modern life forms differed from fossils

Jean Baptista Lamark

12

Radiometric dating

Uses mathematical formulas to study the amount of radioactive isotopes in a fossil

13

Who had the theory of gradualism

Charles lyell

14

Examples of gradualism

Canyons- made from rivers that have eroded
Volcanoes- form islands, volcanoes change earth

15

Idea of inheritance of acquired traits

By using of not using certain body parts, an organism develops certain characteristics. These enhanced characteristics would be passed on to the offspring. An example is a kangaroo's powerful hind legs were the result of ancestors strengthening their legs by jumping, the leg strength was then passed to the offspring.

16

Why is the idea of acquired traits wrong

This idea is wrong because an acquired characteristic would have to modify DNA of specific genes for it to be inherited and there is no evidence that this happens

17

Father of evolution

Charles Darwin

18

What observations did Darwin make about the island animals compared to those in South America and what did Darwin infer about his observations?

Darwin noticed the plants and animals in south america had a definite character . The animals found in south america distinct from those found in europe. Some of the fossils found were gigantic versions of the modern animals. Darwin inferred mainland species changed after they colonized the islands and adapted to their new environment.

19

Using Lyell's theories how did Darwin explain the fossils he found in the Andes mountains

Lyell believed mountain ranges can be thrusted up centimeter by centimeter because of earthquakes occurring over millions of years. When Darwin found fossils ocean organisms in the Andes he reasoned that earthquakes lifted the rock bearing those marine fossils from the sea floor.

20

Two key conclusions Lyell ( and Darwin) based on geologic evidence

-The slow process of mountain building and erosion suggests the earth is solid.
-The gradual process occurring over spans of time could cause change on Earth. Darwin would apply the idea of gradual change to the evolution of Earth's life forms

21

Back in England Darwin was well known as

a famous naturalist

22

Thomas Malthus

Writes an essay on human populations. Essay explains how human suffering was due to the fact that populations grow faster than resources can be produced

23

Darwin did not immediately publish his ideas; it wasn't until another naturalist _____ came up with the same ides for evolutionary changes

Alfred Wallace

24

Darwin published the book

The origin of Species

25

The species alive today descended from

ancestral species

26

When organisms spread into new habitants the accumulate modifications or ______ in a process called______

adaptations; descent with modification ( evolution)

27

Describe what adaptations help a jack rabbit survive in it environment

Jack rabbits benefit from fur that blends well in the desert and ears that help keep its body cool. The white fur of a jack rabbit provides camouflage in the snowy regions of the snow shoe hare's range

28

artificial selection

Selective breeding of domestic animals and plants

29

Darwin's second major point is natural selection is defined as

The process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well suited to the environment leave more offspring on average than other individuals. Certain traits can give individuals advantages over others of the same species in the environment.

30

Natural Selection

A process in which some individuals have genetically-based traits that improve survival or reproduction and thus have more offspring surviving to reproduce than other individuals

31

Evolution

Changes in the occurrence of genetic traits in a population due to natural resulting in the transformation of all life over long periods of time

32

Adaptation

A trait that allows an organism to survive in its environment

33

Homologous Structure

Similar structure found more than one species that shares a common ancestor

34

Vestigial structure

Remnant of a structure that may have had a larger function in a species ancestors but has a lesser function today.

35

Natural selection human influenced nature
Moths
Insects
Bacteria

peppered moth: Pollution changed the environment. nature selecting with the better trait. blend in
Insects: resistant to pesticides need to change pesticide gene on normal chromosome
bacteria: tuberculosis ( resistant to antibiotics) people stop taking medication early doctors over prescribe exposing unnecessary

36

Natural selection human examples
Sickle cell
Lactose intolerance
HIV
Skin color

Sickle cell: carries better chance of surviving from malaria
Lactose intolerance: As adult the gene turns off. Group of people stay on have another food source. Advantageous if you have cows, European decent. Most people lactose intolerant
HIV: Group of people, Europe< resistant to HIV ancestors survived the plague. CC45 protein used for HIV to get into the cell not there
Skin color: in lots of sun( dark skin gets vitamins)
light skin places with less sun make vitamin D and folic acid dark skin in Maine dont get vitamins

37

The source of adaptations that nature selects

meiosis

38

Forms DNA variations

mutations
recombination

39

Homeotic genes

Regions of DNA that are responsible for turning on and off other genes. They regulate the timing of gene activities by making regulatory proteins that turn gene on.

40

SrY gene

Determines gender of baby

41

HOX genes

a regulatory gene essential in embryological development and determine where the regions of the body should be

42

Taxonomy

The study of naming all organism and placing the in groups

43

The naming system developed by carols linneaeus

Developed a system with two main characteristics, a two part name for each species, or ordering of species. The system assigns a two part name

44

Scientific name

The two names used global to refer to a life form

45

Classification

The part of taxonomy where life forms are grouped with others with similar ancestry of appearance

46

Phylogenetic tree

diagrams Darwin used as a way of classification

47

analogous

Unrelated species from similar environments have adaptations that are similar. ex. insects and bird wings

48

embryological structures

Comparing the embryos to see if they are the same group to group them in

49

How is molecular data being used to study evolutionary history

Researchers are sequencing the genomes of species. The molecular data are independent of the structural data that is usually used for classification. When molecular data agree with other sources it provides a strong way to test the hypothesis of evolution.

50

Cladistics

A phylogenetic diagram that specifies unique features

51

Georges Lamaitre's theory

Big Bang Theory

52

When did the big bang theory occur

14 billion years ago

53

galaxies moving away appear

red shifted

54

galaxies moving toward earth appear

blue shifted

55

When did stars form

5 billion years ago

56

When did earth form

4.6 billion years ago

57

Conditions of earth

air quality:
water vapor
CO2
ammonia
N2
Methane CH4
surface:
meteorite
molten/hot
lots of solar radiation
water:
first gas

58

when did oceans form

3.8 billion years ago

59

Spontaneous Generation ( Abiogenesis)

The idea that life could be created from inanimate objects

60

Redi experiment

maggot origins ( lid, covered, cloth) maggots dont form from meat

61

Pasteur experiment

microorganisms boil broth air cant get in. Bacteria gets caught because of special design

62

Explain miller's experiment and what evidence it provides

experiment: Stimulates conditions of early earth. used gases in a flask to represent earths ancient atmosphere, and electric sparks to represent lightning as an energy source
evidence: provide evidence that small organic molecules could have formed from chemical and physical processes on early earth

63

Panspermia ( crick theory)

Some organic monomers could come from space on meteorites

64

Primordial soup

Collection of the monomers and polymers in the ocean (thought where the first cell formed.

65

JPL experiment

monomer, energy (heat), catalyst

66

when did planets start to form

5 billion years ago

67

What did volcanic activity produce

a dense atmosphere on early earth containing gases like methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide

68

What could RNA ribozymes done on early earth

RNA ribozymes could be a template strand to make a copy of itself or make new RNA molecules by reading an RNA template strand. They also connect amino acid monomers into long chains of protein during "translation" replacing molecules evolved into DNA, RNA and proteins phospholipids began forming bilayers around groups of proteins and nucleic acids forming early cell membranes

69

When did the first life form

3.6 billion years ago

70

Five main traits of first cell

prokaryotic cell
unicellular
consumer
anaerobic

71

What happened 2.7 billion years ago and why were they well adapted

success of the cyanobacteria that do photosynthesis. They started changing the planet

72

What are stromatolites and what do they indicate about some of the first life forms

Stromatolites are dome shaped rocks. They are composed of thin layers of sediment passed tightly together. Resembling layers of onions. They indicate that simpler forms of life than the photosynthetic prokaryotes existed 3.5 billion years ago

73

what happened 1.8-2.1 billion year ago

first eukaryote cell

74

endosymbiosis theory

Eukaryotes may have evolved from small prokaryotes that lived within a large host cell. DNA in mitochondria/ chloroplast develop membrane in mito/chloro as if engulfed.