DNA Technology Test # 1 Flashcards Preview

Biology > DNA Technology Test # 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in DNA Technology Test # 1 Deck (48):

Restriction Enzymes

Enzymes that cut DNA at specific sequences
Source: found in bacteria in the wild


Sticky Ends

Staggered single-stranded end piece extending from cut DNA.
They reseal or connect to any piece of DNA that has the letter to the complementary code.


Recombinant DNA

DNA formed by joining pieces from different sources (foreign).
DNA joins by matching sticky ends


Gel Electrophoresis

Technique which uses electrical current to separate molecules (Chromatography for dye/filter)


How Gel Electrophoresis works:
including the gel

The agarose gel acts as a filter.
The small molecules move further and faster.
Molecules are pulled by electricity
Since DNA had a negative charge it is pulled to the positive charge.


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

A method of copying large quantities of a particular piece of DNA


Three steps in PCR

Heating: to unzip the DNA
Cooling: adds primer/ helps
Replication of DNA: copy template; uses an unusual DNA polymerase


When is PCR used?

When there is a small amount of evidence at a crime scene so you have to make copies


DNA Fingerprinting (DNA Profiling)

Using electrophoresis and enzymes to identify aspects of DNA


7 Steps to DNA Profiling

1. Collect sample
2. Extract and purify DNA
3. Cut DNA into fragments using restriction Enzymes
4. Sort fragments by length using gel electrophoresis
5. Split and transfer DNA
6. Attach radioactive probes
7. Make a print and analyze it using a southern blot


Uses of DNA profiling

Identify bodies( missing people)
Identify family members
CSI stuff
Diagnose diseases such as cystic fibrosis and Huntington's



Single stranded radioactive labeled nucleic acid segments used to identify gene of interest.
Genetic markers


Human Genome Project

International project to find all gene codes in a human


History of the Human Genome Project

Started in 1990
First head: James Watson
Final head: Dr. Collins- discovered cystic fibrosis gene
Competition: Craig Venter (CELERA. fast in greek)


What was learned from the Human Genome project

Provide genetic markers: (diseases) may not have known exact gene codes for disease but group of letters that travel within it are markers. Pattern thats always there for the disease gene.
Provide evidence for: Evolution (98%) genes identical to chimpanzees, we may have shared an ancestor with them.
Helped us learn about extra DNA functions, turning genes off
Telomeres: protective ends


Gene Insertion (gene cloning)

Process where DNA from foreign source is inserted into another organism


Transgenic (GMO: genetically modified organisms)

An organism containing a foreign gene



A substance used to insert a gene into a new cell


Examples of vectors

Liposomes: balls of lipids. will not work on plants because they have a cell wall
Virus: naturally insert their DNA wen they infect their host. Take out bad genes and put in good genes to put into person
Plasmid: circular DNA in bacteria. Only use if inserting gene into a bacteria


Genetic Engineering

The alterations of DNA through uses of enzymes and vectors


Steps to make transgenic bacteria

Find the gene: use probe
Cut out gene of interest: use restriction enzymes
Cut a plasmid with the SAME enzyme
Create recombinant DNA by having sticky ends fuse on gene and vector
Vector (plasmid) inserts gene into the host, which will make the protein of interest


Examples of proteins engineered

Blue genes put in cellulase to soften genes
Protein genetically engineered to cause ice
To form factor VIII- people with hemophilia do not produce


Steps to make transgenic plants

Same steps as bacteria but use agro bacterium plasmids as vector


Uses of making transgenic plants

Anti-bug: taste bad to bugs
Golden rice: carotin from carrots, for poor countries so they can get nutrients and minerals
Anti-frost for tomatoes


Ethics of genetic engineering

Supporters say it will lower cost to grow crops
increase yields of crops
decrease the need for chemicals
help feed a hungry world


Concerns about genetic engineering

Not enough studies to prove that it is safe
Not enough studies indicate it will not harm natural species
Fear impact on other plants; control of crops by large corporation
Fear it will impact biodiversity, night mix new gene creating superweed


How to make GMO Animals

1.Gene of choice is manipulated and prepared in the lab
2. Transgene is injected into the egg of an animal
3. Egg is implanted into a surrogate


How are GMO animals better

Bigger salmon- eel and trout gene
More wool for sheep
Cows with more milk and lean meat


GMO animals for medical reasons

Genetically modified pigs to have human tags for the liver
proteins: insulin factor VIII


Other applications of GMO

Goat with spider silk biosteel
Warning system- fish flow when toxin in water. Know if cancer protein is turned on in pigs


Gene Therapy

The insertion of genes into humans to correct illnesses


Steps of gene therapy

1. Cells are removed from patient
2. Virus altered so it cannot reproduce
3. An isolated and cut gene of interest
4. Altered virus is mixed with cells from the patient


Test Tube Babies =IVF or...

In vitro fertilization


Steps of IVF

1. Give woman hormones to produce more eggs
2. Collect eggs and sperm combine in dish
3. Zygote grows in a blastocyst which is inserted into the uterus of the mother of a surrogate mother


Steps to Microsort

1. Dye sperm sex chromosomes
2. X chromosome hold more dye and becomes charged
3. Separate sperm by their charge


Reason for microsort

Genetic diseases ( hemophilia x, disease on Y)
Pick gender of child, family balancing


PGD=preimplantation genetic diagnosis steps

Collect eggs and put in a dish with sperm
Watch the embryo
Take one cell and look at the cell under a microscope
Genetic tests and karyotype


Reason for PGD

Check for diseases
Can determine gender


Cell differentiation

The process by which the less specialized cells ( cell with ALL its DNA on) becomes a more specialized cell type (SOME DNA is turned on


Cloning ( Somatic nuclear transfusion)

The production of identical cells without fertilization


Steps to cloning

1. Obtain an egg and remove the nucleus
2. Obtain somatic nucleus an insert into the empty egg
3. reprogram DNA using electricity and chemicals ( so it can be unspecialized)
4. Insert embryo into uterus maybe a surrogate mother


Reasons for cloning including human cloning

To create new life
Save endangered species
GMO's for more milk
make stem cells for therapeutic cloning


Reasons not to clone human baby

religious rights: right of a clone
Scientific: high risk of early death
Abnormal gene expression
Multiple Identical copies hurt survival because cancer gene can be turned on


Stem cells

Pluripotent cells.
Can potentially become any type of cell


Uses of stem cells

Replace dead or sick cells in diseases such as paralysis, brain disorders ( parkinson's disease), repair damaged organ
Study how cells specialize- gain a set function


Multipotent- adult stem cells. Examples:

not fully potent
Bone marrow: can form any type of blood cell as well as some cartilage and bone. red blood cell, fat, nerve, white blood cell
Umbilical cord cells: can make any type of blood cell


Source of pluripotent stem cells, slightly specialized
Therapeutic cloning

Must be donated by family
Put an adult nucleus in egg and let develop for 3-4 days remove stem cells before it dies


iPS- Induced pluripotent Stem cells

Stem cells are created by genetically engineering normal somatic with specialized regulatory genes.
Reprogram a somatic cell nucleus back to being pluripotent stem cell