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Flashcards in Ecology Exam Deck (40)
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1

Ecology

The study of how organisms interact with their environment and each other

2

Environment

Anything and everything in an organism surroundings

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Abiotic

The part of the environment that was never living

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Biotic

Part of an environment that is living or once was living

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Producer

(AKA Autograph) Organisms capable of making their own food from water, light, air

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Consumer

(AKA heterotroph)
- organisms that must eat other organisms for food

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Herbivore

An organism that only eats fresh plants as 90% or more of its diet

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Carnivore

An organism that eats fresh meat as 90% of its diet

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Omnivore

Organisms that eats a mixture of plants and animal materials

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Detritus

Waste from plants and animals, including dead remains

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Scavenger

Organisms that feed on the bodies of smaller dead animals

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Decomposers

Organisms that break down organic matter at the cellular level.

13

community

all organisms that interact with an ecosystem

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species

all organisms within an ecosystem that have the same structure and can reproduce with each other

15

population

refers to all of the members of a certain species within and ecosystem

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Examples of abiotic

soil, water,

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examples of biotic

fungi, bugs, plants

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commensalism

one specie benefits, one is not affected
eg.) barnacles on a whale

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mutualism

both species benefits
eg.) bee gathering nectar from a plant

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parasitism

one specie benefits the other is harmed
eg.) hookworm living on a dog

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biodiversity

the variety and number of different individuals and species in an ecosystem

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What is the tropic level of tertiary consumers?

The 4th level

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Food chain

The transfer of energy through single stations

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Food web

2 or more food chains interconnected

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Open ecosystem

Is influence by biotic and abiotic factors outside one ecosystem

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Closed ecosystem

Has no influence outside of its environment

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Biogeochemical

The flow of chemical elements between living things and the environment

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Carbon cycle

- one of the biogeochemical cycles
- the movement of carbon between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere

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Nitrogen cycle

- biogeochemical cycle
- the movement of nitrogen from the air and soil to the living things and back

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Bio accumulation

The build up of chemicals in living organisms

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Eg of autotroph

Seeds, grass, leaves

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Eg primary consumer

Grasshopper, vole

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Eg tertiary consumer

Carnivores
Weasel, hawk, bobcat

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Biomagnification

The process where chemicals accumulate and become more concentrated

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Trophic level

Place where organisms eat

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1st Trophic level

Producers that feed themselves

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2nd trophic level

Herbivores that eat producers

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3rd trophic level

Carnivores that eat herbivores

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4th trophic level

Carnivores that eat other carnivores

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5th trophic level

Decomposers