Flashcards in Weather Deck (21)
How is heat released and stored when water changes phases?
Latent heat, when water changes state, a certain amount of heat is taken or given off
Eg.) As water is heated and turned into a vapour, heat is required or taken in. The heat gets stored and taken with the water molecules
kinetic energy of molecules in 3 phases...
solid, liquid, gas
How do large bodies of water moderate the climate around them using the properties of water?
Large bodies of water tend to moderate the climate of land that is near them. Before the land near the water can cool down or warm up, the water itself must warm up or cool down which takes a long time
how do onshore breezes occur?
In the day the land heats up faster then the sea. Air above the land heats, expands and rises. Cool air above the sea is denser and moves in to replace the warmer air.
How do offshore breezes occur?
At night the land cools faster then the sea. The air above the land is cooler than above the sea. A convection current is set up in the opposite direction creating an offshore breeze
3 ways of heat transfer...
conduction, convection, radiation
Why is it important for ice to be less dense then water?
Because then lakes and rivers would freeze to the bottom and any living marine organisms would die.
A layer of ice develops over a lake and acts as an insulator preventing the lake water to freeze
Discuss the earths radiation budget
- the more a surface reflects energy, the less it absorbs energy
- when then suns radiant energy is absorbed, its transformed into heat
- the earth reflects 30% of the energy it receives
- When sunlight reaches the earth's surface, it either reflected or absorbed into other forms or energy
Overall albedo of the earth:
How does snow affect the weather in winter?
Snow has a very high albedo since it reflects a lot
What causes the jet stream?
A complex interaction of high and low pressure systems, warm and cold air and seasonal changes
Which way does the jet stream flow?
from West to East
What are 2 major ocean currents?
- surface circulation
- deep circulation
What are 3 major global wind systems?
Polar cell, Hadley cell, Ferrel cell
Describe and explain cloud in a bottle
-Evaporation is need to form the cloud
- kinetic energy rises and promoted the rate of evaporation
- smoke particles act like a seed nuclei for the water droplets to condense around
When air in the bottle is released what happens?
the air expands and cools enough to condense the water vapour around the smoke particles
why can warm air hold more vapour and cool air?
cause warm air has more kinetic energy and can transfer that energy to water molecules for evaporation
How does coriolis effect with in northern and southern hemisphere?
Northern- winds deflect to the right
Southern- winds deflect to the left
how do tree rings demonstrate patterns of weather?
the wider the spacing between the rings indicate greater growth during a warm wet season
How does a balloon filled with water not break when a match is held under it?
The water absorbs the heat so it doesn't weaken the rubber