Ecology: sampling the environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ecology: sampling the environment Deck (24):
1

Biodiversity

A measure of the range of different species of organism living in an area

2

Community

The relationship between all the living species in an area

3

Ecosystem

The relationship between the living species and their habitat

4

Habitat

The place where an organism lives and breeds

5

Population

The number of organisms of a single species in a given habitat

6

Studying the environment using the apparatus to measure biotic(living) data

Distribution of plant or animal species

7

The study of environment to investigate the changes of distribution

From a hedge grow into the centre of a field and also indicate levels of biodiversity

8

Pitfall trap

A hole is dug to accommodate a container and a raised lid is placed on top to prevent entry of rain. The trap is then left fora period of time (24 hours). Useful for collecting small ground living animals like beetles.

9

Quadrat

This is a square frame that can be placed at a series of randomly chosen coordinates. The abundance of plant species is often measured in this way- if individual plants cannot be identified (grass) then percentage cover can be used. It can also be used for non mobile animal species like barnacles.

10

Pooter

A pooter allows small animals to be sucked into an observation chamber so that they can be easily identified.

11

Sweep net

Often used in long vegetation or in streams and rivers to catch small organisms for the purposes of identification

12

How to measure abiotic (non living) factors in the environment?

Light intensity: light meter
Temperature: thermometer
Wind speed: anemometer
Water availability: moisture sensor
pH: pH meter

13

How to avoid bias results when using quadrats

If choosen site is bias it would reduce the viability of the results obtained.

To avoid this the area is divided into a grid and random coordinates on the grid are generated( coordinates represent sampling points).

14

Belt transect

This technique is used when we can see a change in environment (sea to land).
It involves quadrats being laid end to end in a line(100m)
We would expect the change in environment to be reflected in the types of species recorded along the transect

15

Factors that will affect the numbers of organisms living in an area

-extent of cultivation( if ground is manages there are likely to be fewer species present/less biodiversity)
-space
-shelter
-presence of individuals to mate with
-predators
-mineral availability for plants

16

Classification

Allows a better understanding of evolution, biodiversity and how best to conserve species for futher generation(a key is often used)

17

Protoctista

Nutrition: saprophytic or photosynthesis
Cell wall: cellulose/no cell wall
Cellular organism: single called with nucleus/algae are not truly multi-cellular

18

Bacteria

Nutrition: saprophytic
Cell wall: non cellulose
Cellular organisation: singled celled, lacking a nucleus

19

Fungi

Nutrition: saprophytic/ parasitic
Cell wall: non cellulose
Cellular organisation: single or multicellular. Sometimes difficult to distinguish cells and so are referred to as ACELLULAR

20

Plants

Nutrition: photosynthesis
Cell wall: cellulose
Cellular organisation: single to multicellular

21

Animals

Nutrition: heterotrophic
Cell wall: none
Cellular organisation: single or multicellular

22

What is a species

A species is a group of organisms with similar observable features that can breed to produce fertile offspring.
(It's hard to classify newly discovered species due to past biology relying solely on observational species but now technology can compare DNA)

23

How Viruses can creat a big problem in classification

Viruses are they are on the boundary between living and non living. The reason for this is that they need a host cell to reproduce.

24

The 7 life processes

Movement
Respiration
Sensitivity
Growth
Reproduction
Excretion
Nutrition