Edema/Congestion/Hemostasis #3 1/19/16 Flashcards Preview

Pathology #1 > Edema/Congestion/Hemostasis #3 1/19/16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Edema/Congestion/Hemostasis #3 1/19/16 Deck (21):
1

What is Edema?

Increased fluid into interstitial tissues during inflammation

2

What are some ways Edema can occur?

- Increased hydrostatic pressure/Decreased venous return
- Reduced Plasma osmotic pressure
- Lymphatic obstruction
- Sodium and water retention
- Inflammation

3

What is Effusion?

A collection of fluid in body CAVITY or SPACE

4

What are some examples of effusions?

Pleural
Pericardial
Peritoneal
Joint space
Transudate

5

What is Hyperemia?

increased tissue blood volume secondary to NEUROGENIC MECHANISMS or inflammation (Active)
* Caused during exercise and inflammation

6

What is Congestion?

Increased tissue good volume secondary to IMPAIRED VENOUS RETURN (passive)
*Cyanosis/hypoxia

7

What is Hemorrhage?

Loss of blood secondary to vessel injury to physical disruption.
- External
- Internal

8

(Internal hemorrhage) hematoma = ?

Large mass (tumor) of blood

9

(Internal hemorrhage) Ecchymosis = ?

> 1cm in size (bruise)

10

(Internal hemorrhage) Purpura = ?

0.3-0.9cm bruise

11

(Internal hemorrhage) Petechia = ?

1-2mm (Pinpoint red dot)

12

What is acute Hemorrhage?

Greater than 20% loss in blood volume (Shock)

13

Chronic hemorrhage can lead to ____.

Anemia

14

What is Hemostasis?

Rapid arrest of blood at the set of injury?

15

What are the 3 major components of Hemostasis?

1. Endothelium - both anticoagulants and procoagulant (Mostly procoagulant)
2. Platelets - adhesion, secretion, aggregation
3. Coagulation cascade

16

What does Von Willebrand factor do?

Allows platelets to stick and a hemostatic plug to form, without it would be difficult to clot.

17

What happens during adhesion of platelets?

Von willdesbrand factor is released and platelets stick.

18

What happens during Secretion (with platelets)?

- Release of ADP and Ca++
- Surface phospholidpid complex forms

19

What happens during Aggregation (with Platelets)?

- Mediated by ADP, TXA2 and thrombin fibrinogen binds to GP IIb-IIIa.

20

Describe the Coagulation Cascade....

The coagulation cascade is a series of proteolytic conversions.
- Ca++ - active enzyme- cofactor - substrate
- Enzyme activity occurs at PL complex on platelet surface
- Extrinsic system = Tissue factor
- Intrinsic system = Factor XII
- Final products = THROMBIN AND FIBRIN

21

What are some counter regulators of Hemostasis?

Platelets = PGI2, NO, ADPase
Fibrin clot = Antithrombin III, Protein S, Protein C, thrombomodulin.
Fibrinolysis = Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasmin.