Overview of Inflammation #2 (1/12/16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Overview of Inflammation #2 (1/12/16) Deck (32):
1

What changes occur in blood flow during acute inflammation?

Vasodilation = Increased vascular permeability
*Fluid can leak out of blood vessels causing tissue edmea

2

Vasodilation is mediated by ____, ____ and ______.

Nitric Oxide
PG's
Histamine

3

What is the first cell to arrive a site of acute inflammation?

PMN's (Neutrophils)

4

What are the 2 types of fluid that accumulate in inflammation?

Transudate = low protein fluid, low specific gravity
non-inflammatory intact endothelium,
Inflammatory - Early endothelial contraction

Exudate = High protein content, high specific gravity.

5

What are they 3 types of exudate?

Fibrinous = high protein, few cells
Purulent = High protein, many cells
Sanguineous = high protein, blood

6

What are the mechanisms that can increase Vascular permeability?

Endothelial contraction (Reversible)
- Immediate and transient

Endothelial Retraction
- Delayed = develops in 4-6 hrs and sustained for 24+ hrs

Direct injury (non lethal)
- Immediate or delayed but also sustained.

7

Endothelial cell contraction is mediated by what 4 things?

PAF
Histamine
Bradykinin
Leukotrienes

8

After Direct Endothelial injury, what mediates the increased vascular permeability?

Injurious agents
ROS/enzymes from PMN's
*Endothelial cell retraction is mediated by IL-1 TNF and IFN-Y

9

What activates Endothelial cell retraction?

IL-1, TNF and IFN-Y

10

Activated Endothelial cells produce _______ and ______.

PGI2 and NO (vasodilation)

11

What molecule allows for transport of molecule out of blood vessel?

PECAM

12

What is the order of events Leukocyte migration? (5)

1. Margination = Physical forces
2. Rolling - selectins (speed bumps that slow molecules down) (weak, transient sticking)
3. Adhesions - intergrins "Docking station" (ICAM and VCAM)
4. Emigration or Transmigration - PECAM "Shuttle doors"
5. Chemotaxis = movement alone the concentration gradient of chemotactic factors.

13

What are the steps of Phagocytosis?

1. Recognition and attachment = Microbes bind to phagocyte receptors.
2. Engulfment = Phagocyte membrane zips up around microbe.
3. Killing and degradation

14

The presence of ______ defines acute inflammation.

Neutrophils (They release ROS and induce apoptosis)

15

What cell shows up after Neutrophils?

Monocytes and macrophages around day 3 (48hrs)

16

What are the functions of monocytes/macrophages?

- phagocytosis
- Cytokines
- Antigen presentation
- Plasma proteins
- Enzymes
- "Clear up mess the neutrophils made"

17

What are other Inflammatory cells that turn up?

Lymphocytes = immune functions
Eosinophils = Allergic Reactions, parasites
Mast cells = histamine

18

______ is diffuse tissue infiltration by PMN'S with Edema.

Cellulitis

19

_____ is a localized collection of PMN's or liquefactive necrosis (Pus)

Abscess

20

How do features of Chronic inflammation differ from acute inflammation?

Acute = days - weeks
Chronic = days - years
Acute = localized
Chronic = maybe systemic
Acute = no immune response
Acute = often reversible

21

What are the 2 types of Chronic inflammation?

Non-specific
Granulomatous
*Tissue distraction leading to fibrosis (scarring) is common.

22

What can cause Granulomatous inflammation?

Inorganic matter
Bacterial infections (like TB)
Parasitic infections (Toxoplasmosis)
Uncertain etiology

23

What causes histamine release?

Physical injury Ag-IgE, C3a and C5a, Cytokines



24

Prostaglandins are important for ______.

Vasodilation

25

Thromboxane A2 is important for ________.

Vasoconstriction

26

What are 3 important chemical inflammatory mediators?

Histamine releasers
Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
Thromboxane A2

27

What does Labile mean?

Continuously dividing (hematopoietic cells, surface epithelium)

28

What does Stable refer to?

Tissue with some replicative activity (Parenchymal cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts)

29

What does Permanent refer to in wound healing?

non-proliferative tissue (Neurons, cardiac muscle)

30

What are the effects of growth factors in wound healing?

- Epithelial proliferation
- Monocyte Chemotaxis
- Fibroblast proliferation
- Angiogenesis
- collagen synthesis

31

What is the primary cause of delayed healing?

Infection!

32

What are other factors that affect wound healing?

- nutrition
- steroid therapy
- mechanical factors
- poor tissue perfusion