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Flashcards in Education - Functions Deck (23):

What 4 roles of education do Functionalists believe in?

Social solidarity (Durkheim)
Teaching specialist skills (Durkheim)
Role allocation (Davis & Moore)
Meritocracy (Parsons)


What is social solidarity?

Education teaches society’s culture, norms and values (value consensus). Works like society in mini.


What is teaching specialist skills?

Being taught basic numeracy/literacy to function in society.


What is meritocracy?

Success = talent + effort.
Judged on universalistic standards.
Status is achieved, not ascribed.


What is role allocation?

Pushing students into work depending on their skill set, by sift and sort.


What is the formal curriculum?

Lessons schools explicitly teach, in classrooms etc.


What is the hidden curriculum?

What school teaches indirectly, manners and social norms.


Pros of social solidarity.

Assemblies, large class sizes, sports team etc contribute to community feel.


Cons of social solidarity.

Ignores negative experiences (bullying) that alienate students.


Pros of specialist skills.

National curriculum men’s everybody gets the same basic skills.
Higher education offer more specialist training.


Cons of specialist skills.

Compulsory education does not teach specialist skills (carpentry etc) enough.


Pros of meritocracy.

Universal standards of judgement with same value in any institution.
Education is offered to everyone for free.


Cons of meritocracy.

Ignores some skills/subjects and prefers others.
There are some schools which only benefit the wealthy.


Pros of role allocation.

Large range of choice after GCSEs to help choose the right path.


Cons of role allocation.

Students are told to do what they’re good at, not what they enjoy.
Most subjects and jobs arent included in subject choice.


What 4 functions of education to Marxists believe in?

Ideological state apparatus (Althusser)
Reproduction of class inequalities (Bourdieu)
Long shadow or work (Bowles & Gintis)
Repression and hegemonic control (Illich & Freire)


What is ideological state apparatus?

State using education system to convince working class the system is fair.


What is the reproduction of class inequalities?

The working class have the wrong habitus/cultural capital to understand the ruling class school system - inequality gets enforced.


What is the long shadow of work?

School mirrors the workforce (correspondence principle).


Give 3 examples of the correspondence principle.

1. Students work for grades not learning, adults work for money not experience.
2. Students do repetitive tasks at schools, adults do repetitive tasks at work.
3. Students are powerless in their school day decisions, adults are powerless in their job decisions.
4. Students are taught different subjects and told to specialise, adults are specialised.


What is repression and hegemonic control?

Schools promote conformity and acceptance of how life is, people who don’t conform get higher education.


Pros of Marxist theory

Education system is controlled by those with upper class habitus.


Cons of Marxist functions

Social mobility - you don’t have to stay in a poor family just because you were born into it.