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Flashcards in Education keywords Deck (32):

Intellectual stimulation

Toys and activities that will stimulate children's thinking and reasoning skills eg. Reading


Basil and Bernstein: speech code

They distinguish between elaborated and restricted speech code


Restricted code

Used by WC, less analytic and more descriptive, particularistic it assumes that the listener shares the particular meaning that the speaker holds.


Elaborated code

MC use this, more analytic, with a wide vocabulary and complex sentence. It is universalistic, speaker spells out their meaning explicitly.


Immediate gratification

Wanting rewards now rather than being willing to make sacrifices and working hard for future rewards, unlike the deferred gratification practice by the middle class.



I belief that "What ever will be, will be ". Working-class children don't believe they can improve their position through their own individual efforts.


Feinstein Parents education

Argue that parents own education is the most important factor affecting children's achievement.


Bourdieu Cultural capital

Argue that MC pupils are more successful than WC pupils because their parents poses more capital or assets.


Becker: Labelling

Argues that teachers label MC children as 'ideal pupil' and prefer to teach them rather than WC children.



Labels are meaning we attach to someone or something to make sense of them


The self-fulfilling prophecy

A prophecy is a prediction made about something or someone but it has come true simply cuz it has been made



Is an extreme institutionalised form of labelling, by putting all pupils of similar ability together into the same class or "stream"


Lacey: Differentiation

Described streaming as "differentiation" a way of separating the sheep from the goats and then educating the differently.


The self-fulfilling prophecy

A prophecy is a prediction made about something or someone but it has come true simply cuz it has been made



Is a social class habitual way of thinking, being and acting. MC define its habitus as superior


Symbolic capital and symbolic violence

School commits symbolic violence by devaluing WC habitus, judging their clothing and denying then symbolic capital, recognition and statues


'Nike' identities

Symbolic violence leads pupils to creat alternative class identities and gain symbolic capital from peers thorough consuming brands


Bereiter and Engelmann

Claim that the language of poorer black American families is ungrammatical and disjointed. As a result their children are unable to express abstract ideas


The New Right thinker: Murray

Argue that the high rate of lone parenthood and lack of positive role model lead to underachievement or some minority pupils



Argue that Chinese and Indian pupils benefit from supportive families with an 'Asian work ethic', he contrasts this with black lone parents families


Compensatory education

Is an educational policy that aim to counter the effect of culture deprivation eg. Operation Head Start and Sure Start


Keddie: victim blaming

Argue that the cultural deprivation is a victim blaming. Minority ethnic groups are culturally different , not culturally deprived, they underachieve cuz school are ethnocentric, in favour of white culture


Ball: cultural exclusion

Argue that minority ethnic group parents are at a disadvantage cuz they are unaware of how to negotiate the British education system, result in cultural exclusion


Cultural domination

Compensatory education impose the dominant white middle class culture on minority ethnic group pupils own culture


Gillborn and Youdell: labelling black pupils

Teachers had 'racialised expectations' about black pupils, expected more disciple problems and punished them more.


Connolly: Asian pupils

Found that primary school teachers saw Asian pupils as passive and conformist. Both teachers and pupils saw Asia boys as 'feminine' , vulnerable and less able to protect themselves


Gillborn: assessment

Argue that assessment is rigged to validate the dominant white cultures superiority


Tikly and Strand

Found that blacks were more likely to be entered for lower tier exams, cuz they have been placed in lower sets due to teachers expectations


List the 4 eternal changes in gender difference in education

Influence of feminism
Girls perception and ambition
Changes in the family
Changes in women's employment


Internal factors and girls achievement

Equal opportunity policies eg. The National Curriculm
Role model eg, female teachers and head teachers
Teachers attention


French and French: teachers attention

Found that teachers paid boys and girls similar amounts of attention for academic reasons. But boys received more attention overall because they attracted more punishment for misbehaviour.


Material deprivation/ poverty factors :

Poor housing: Overcrowding or cold damp rooms mean pupils have no where quite to do homework.
Poor diet: can lead to illness, absences from school and lack of concentration in class due to hunger.
Low income: affect educational achievement in several ways