Flashcards in Crime and Deviance Deck (26):
Durkheim functionalist theory
While functionality’s see too much crime as destabilising society, they also see crime as inevitable and universal.
1. Not everyone is equally effectively socialised into the shared norms and values, individuals will be prone to deviance.
2. There is a diversity of lifestyle and values. Different groups develop their own subcultures with distinctive norms and values.
The rules governing behaviour becomes weaker and less clear cut. This is because modern societies have a complex, specialised division of labour, which leads to individuals becoming increasingly different from one another.
Durkheims two positive functions of crime
1. Boundary maintenance: crime produces a reaction from society, uniting its members in condemnation of the wrongdoer. Punishment reinforces social solidarity. Publicly shaming them.
2. Adaptation and change: all change start with an act of deviance.
Davis: prostitution act as a safety valve for the release of men’s sexual frustration without threatening the monogamous nuclear family.
Polsky: pornography safely channels a variety of sexual desires away from alternative.
Mertons strain theory
Strain theory argues that people engage in deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. They may become frustrated and resort to criminal means of getting what they want.
What 2 things for Merton is the result of strain between:
1. The goal that a culture encourages individuals to achieve.
2. What the institutional structure of society allows them to achieve legitimately.
The American Dream
Americans are expected to pursue this goal by legitimate means: self discipline, study, educational qualifications and hard work in a career. However the reality is different: many disadvantaged groups are denied opportunities to achieve legitimately.
Block opportunities for many ethnic minorities and the lower class.
Criticisms of Durkheim functionalist theory
For Durkheim society requires a certain amount of deviance to function successfully, but he offers no way of knowing how much is the right amount.
Functionalists look at what functions crime serves for society as a whole and ignores how it might affect different groups or individuals within society.
5 different types of adaptations to strain
1. Conformity ++
2. Innovation +-
3. Ritualism -+
4. Retreatism - -
5. Rebellion-+ -+
Evaluation of Merton
Merton shows how normal and deviant behaviour can arise from the same mainstream goals.
However, it over represent wc crime, Merton sees crime as a mainly wc phenomenon. Too deterministic
Marxists argue it ignores the power of the ruling class
Subcultural strain theories
Subculture strain theories see deviance as the product of a delinquent subculture with different values from those of mainstream society. Provides alternative opportunity structure for those who are denied the chance to achieve by legitimate means. Critics and builds on Mertons theory.
Cohen: status frustration
Cohen focuses on deviance among Wc boys. They face anomie in the mc dominated school system. The boys reject mainstream mc values and turn instead to other boys in the same situation forming a delinquent subculture. Win status from their peer through their delinquent actions.
Evaluation of Cohen’s theory
A strength is that it offers an explanation of non utilitarian deviance.
Like Merton, Cohen assumes that wc boys starts off by sharing mc success goal, he ignores the possibility that they didn’t share these goals in the first place.
Cloward and Ohlin: three subcultures
Cloward and Ohlin attempts to explain why different subculture responses occur. In their view the key reason is unequal access to legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structure. Different neighbourhoods provides different illegitimate opportunities for young people.
1. Criminal subculture
2. Conflict subcultures
3. Retreatist subcul
Evaluation of Cloward and Ohlin
They agree with Merton and Cohen that most crime is wc, thus ignoring crimes of the wealthy.
Their theory over predicts the amount of wc crime
They ask how and why some people and actions are labelled as criminal or deviance, and what effects this has on those who are so labelled. They are interested in interactions between law agents and suspects derived from interactionist perspective, which focuses on how thought micro-level, face to face interactions as negotiations.
Durkheim functionalist theory of crime
He sees crime as a normal part of all health societies as some individuals are inadequately socialise and prone to deviant. In modern society the diversity of subculture means the rules of behaviour become less clear.
Crime fulfils 2 things:
1. Boundary maintenance: crime produces a reaction from society, uniting its members its members against the wrongdoers
2. Adaptation and change: all changes starts as deviance
Argue that police use typification (stereotypes) of the “typical delinquent” individual fitting the typification are more Lilly to be stopped,arrested and charged:
Wc and ethnic minority juveniles are more Lilly to be arrested
Mc juveniles are less likely to fit the typification
Lemert: Secondary deviance
Argues that, by labelling certain people as deviant, society actually encourages them to become more so: societal reaction causes “secondary deviance.
Is deviant act that have not been publicly labelled, are often trivial and often go uncaught. Although, secondary deviance results from societal reaction, ie. labelling. Labelling someone as an offender can involve stigmatising and excluding them from the normal society. Others may see the offender solely in terms of the label, which becomes the individuals master statues.
Young’s study of hippy marijuana users
Illustrates how labelling can provoke crisis for the individuals self concept and lead to them joining a deviant subculture which reinforces a deviant career. Drug use was initially peripheral to the hippies lifestyle, but police persecution of them as junkies led them to retreat into closed groups, developing a deviant sub culture where drug uses became a central activity .
The 3 different crime prevention and control
There are several approaches to crime prevention. These raise the issue of social control to capacity of society to regulate behaviour.
1. Situational crime prevention: are pre-emptive approach that relies on reducing opportunities for crime.
2. Environmental crime prevention: Wilson and Kelling argue that “broken windows” that are not dealt with send out a signal that no one cares,prompting a spiral of decline.
3. Social and community crime prevention: these strategies emphasis dealing with the social condition that predispose some individuals to future crime eg. Poverty.
Foucault: The panopticon
The panopticon is a prison design where prisoners cells are visible to the guards, but the guards are not visible to the prisoners. The prisoners have to constantly behave.
Marxism: capitalism and punishment
Punishment is part of the “repressive state apparatus” that defends ruling class property against the lower class.
Is those who have suffered harm eg. Physical or emotional suffering, economic loss through acts that violates the laws of the state. However, Christie argues that “victims” is a socially constructed category.
Focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence. It seems patterns in victimisation and aims to identify the characteristics of victims that contribute to their victimisation.