Flashcards in Edward Deck (36):
After Henry's death, his main concern was ensuring political stability. What did he put into place to guarantee this happening?
A Regency council
What was the regency council balanced with?
Reformists (led by Duke of Somerset) and the Catholics (under Norfolk and Gardiner)
Why can it be believed that Henry VIII will was hijacked?
- William Paget and Denny undermined the regency council and both had positions where they were able to intercept what the will contained.
- Changes were only made closer to the kings death when he wasn't as able to know what was going on.
- Made easier as Gardiner and Norfolk was in the tower
- The changes didn't need Henry's signature as Denny controlled the dry stamp
Why were there concerns of having a minor on the throne?
- He would be unable to lead troops into battle
- Other nations would look to exploit it as a weakness and invade
- England might return to civil war
- Unable to control factional struggles
- His personal image wouldn't suggest being powerful
What year did Edward's health begin to decline?
A) If Edward was to die, what did the will of Henry VIII state should happen?
B) What actually happened?
A) If Edward was to die with no heirs, the throne should be passed to Mary.
B) During Edward's reign, the plot changed and the succession excluded Mary. Edward then named Lady Jane Grey as his heir to the throne
Why can it be argued that Northumberland was behind the change in the Act of Succession?
- He wanted to preserve his power
- He was Protestant and would lose his power if Catholic Mary had the throne.
Why can it be argued that Edward was behind his decisions with the succession?
- He had a greater role within parliament
- Edward was a committed protestant and didn't want there to be a change to Catholicism.
- Wanted the religious reform programme he had started to continue.
A) When was the devise for the new succession drawn up?
B) What did it state?
A) May 1553
B) Male heirs of the Grey family shall be named Edward's succession but this didn't seem likely to happen as Edward was dying fast so it was altered so that LJG was named successor.
What was the impact on faction from the unrest in 1549?
Although the unrest had been but down, there was still concerns with regards to the disorder. Causing governing circles forming the anti-Somerset Faction.
What was the anti-somerset faction?
-Included diverse figures such as Warwick, Paget, Wriothesley.
-They opposed Somerset's religious policies and it was the events in the summer of 1549 which gave them the opportunity to act.
How did Somerset lose his power?
He declined to Hampton court with the king & summoned loyal subjects and guards to protect him. However, Edward became ill and felt like Somerset's prisoner so left his uncle.
Edward stated that Somerset threatened riots if he lost his power, but he could not contradict the king and thus lost his power and removed.
What were the four phases of religious change under Edward (give dates)?
1. 1947: Attack on Catholicism
2. 1948: The lack of an official doctrine, but a period of uncontrolled radical protestant activity
3. 1549 - 52: The establishment of Protestant worship.
4. 1553: The establishment of a fully reformed church
What was introduced in order to remove the Catholic faith?
- July 1947 the Book of Homilies was introduced which gave model sermons and Erasmus' Paraphrases which were introduced to all churches
- Clergy were ordered to conduct services in English and make sure there was an English Bible present
- Iconoclasm - removal of images
- Parliament repealed the Treason Act
When was the Treason Act abolished?
What did the abolishing of the Treason Act cause? (give examples)
A lot of unrest and radical activity:
- Pamphlets attacking the mass
- Iconoclastic attacks on alters
What did parliament introduced in 1948 between January and April to stop the radical activity?
Issued a series of Proclamations
What year was the first act of uniformity?
The Act of Uniformity 1549 introduced a number of Protestant practices, what were they?
- Sacraments were just communion, baptism, confirmation, marriage and burial
- Clergy could marry
- Singing for the souls of the dead was ended
- Holy communion, matins and evensong was in English
- Laity could take communion in both kinds.
What was brought in January 1550?
A new ordinal
What was introduced in 1553? and what did they do?
1. Second Prayer Book
2. Act of Uniformity (2)
They removed all traces of Catholicism
3. The Forty-Two Articles (outlining doctrine and beliefs) but these never became law because of Edwards death.
when did Edward die?
Why did legislation such as the Second Prayer book and the Act of Uniformity have such little impact?
Because of Edward's death
What were the three pieces of legislation that ordered the destruction of images?
July 1547: royal injunctions ordered the removal of superstitious images
February 1548: all images were to be removed
December 1548: a proclamation ordered all remaining images to be destroyed.
Name the demands of the rebels from the Western Rebellion ?
1. The restoration of six articles
2. Mass in Latin
3. Holy bread and water, palms and ashes all to be restored
4. Images to be restored
5. Prayers for the souls of the dead
When was the Western Rebellion?
By having a minor accessing the throne, what did this increase within the government?
What can the Western Rebellion also be called?
The Prayer Book Rebellion
What happened during the Western Rebellion?
- William Body was murdered in 1548 after he returned to supervise the destruction of images.
- A large number of people gathered at Bodmin in opposition to the Act of Uniformity
- Major unrest at Sampford Courtenay and Whitsunday = locals protested about the New Prayer and insisted the Priest used the old one.
From the demands of the Western Rebellion, what did they want to do?
Restore traditional doctrine, asserted a belief in transubstantiation and purgatory.
How was the Western Rebellion dealt with?
The government and the commons had to send force under Lord John Russell.
The rebels were finally defeated at Sampford Courtenay where 3000 rebels were killed.
When was the Kett's rebellion ?
Where was the Kett's rebellion? and who led it?
East Anglia and leader was Robert Kett
What was the reasons behind the Kett's rebellion?
Enclosure - the rioters were angry that the local lawyer had bought the local abbey church and began to enclose the land.
What happened during the Kett's rebellion?
- Kett raised an army of 16,000 men who marched to Norwich and set up camp.
- The rebels were offered a pardon but instead they seized Norwich.
- The Government sent a force under Marquis of Northampton but was defeated
- Then the Duke of Northumberland was sent and his force massacred the rebels (3,000 rebels were killed)
- Kett was hanged for treason.