Flashcards in Mary Deck (50):
Matilda was queen of England in the twelfth century, what was a result of this? and why did this have an impact on others' opinions of a female ruler?
Civil war broke out and this raised the concern that there would be no acceptance of a female ruler and therefore create instability.
what law did some countries use to exclude women from the throne?
Why did Henry have such a great concern of having a male heir?
He believed that a female heir would create dynastic weakness
Give examples of why there was fears of having a female queen...
1) A woman would be unable to control faction
2) A woman would be unable to lead an army into battle
3) A woman was expected to marry but within the 16th century, women had to be subservient to their husbands.
What were the issues of Mary marrying either a foreigner or an Englishman?
1. Marrying an Englishman = the husbands family could rise in station and dominate court
2. Marrying a foreigner = the country would be dominated by foreigners
Who were the two realistic candidates for Mary's marriage? and who were they supported by?
1. Edward Courtenay = Earl of Devon (Supported by Gardiner)
2. Philip of Spain (Supported by Paget)
When did Mary inform the Council that she intended to marry Philip?
27 October 1553
When was the Marriage Treaty approved?
How many months after the Lady Jane Grey affair was the Wyatt's rebellion?
The uprising was initially going to be a four pronged attack. Where were they?
3. Welsh borders
What were the other reasons for the Wyatt's rebellion?
There was also religious motives as Wyatt was a Protestant and the other leaders had links to the Protestant faith.
They planned to marry Elizabeth to Courtenay but he disclosed the scheme.
How did Mary deal with the Wyatt's rebellion?
She sent a militant force under Norfolk but they deserted therefore the rebels reached the gates of London.
How was Mary's privy council structured?
It was large and filled with her own supporters who helped her gain the throne and kept many experienced administrators.
Some argued that Mary's Privy council was ineffective. How is this not true?
- rare for all councillors to be present
- in 1555 an 'inner circle' council was established
- Philips departure in 1555 and the death of Gardiner allowed Paget to dominate and establish a conciliar form of government.
Why was there initial clashes between Gardiner and Paget?
Because of Mary's marriage choice and also the revival of the heresy laws.
What did the clashes between Gardiner and Paget prove?
That there was clear unpopularity with Mary's religious policies.
Why did Mary always refer everything to the Spanish Ambassador or the Cardinal Pole?
Because she didn't trust her councillors advice
What did Mary issue at the start of her reign?
a proclamation stating that she intended to cautiously change religion back to Catholicism.
What did Parliament refuse to repeal in 1553
Act of Supremacy
When was the Act of repeal passed and what did it do and what did it restore?
Undid the changes made under Edward and restored the situation to that of 1547 under the Act of Six Articles
What did Mary suspend and why?
She suspended the Second Act of Uniformity using the royal prerogative in order to restore mass
1) What restored traditional Catholic practises?
2) Give examples of the practises?
1) Royal injunctions in 1554
2) holy days, processions and ceremonies
What happened to the initial attempts to restore the Heresy Laws in 1554?
They were rejected by parliament
Why wouldn't parliament agree to the Heresy Laws being reinstated in 1554?
They wouldn't pass them until there was a guarantee that the monastic lands would be restored
When was the Second Act of Repeal and what did it do?
November 1554 - repealed all religious legislation passed sing 1529
When were the Heresy Laws reintroduced?
When did the burning's start?
What measures were put into place to increase the appeal of Catholicism?
- Bishops were ordered to make regular visitations to monitor clerical behaviour
- Ending of pluralism was established
- Catholic New Testament and Book of Homilies
- Pole wanted seminaries in every diocese
How was Mary's return accepted within London?
Accepted greatly - there was cheering in the streets
What could have led Mary to believe that Catholic restoration would be simple?
The masses of support from the nation and the large number of attendance to her coronation in contrast to Lady Jane Grey
Why wouldn't the government pass certain laws and acts?
There was factional, economic and land concerns within the gentry as they had been buying monastic lands since 1536. Until they were guaranteed their lands and were certain of their security, the legislation were passed.
What can be viewed as evidence for the unpopularity of Mary's religious changes?
The Wyatt's Rebellion
What could Mary's marriage to Philip strengthen?
Her ability to impose religious changes and secure a Catholic succession by conceiving an heir
Why did Protestants decide to leave England?
Because they knew that Mary was not going to tolerate the Protestant religion and its followers
How many protestants fled England?
Where was there most support shown for Mary's religious changes? and how?
Through the Parishioners who raised money to purchase vestments and other equipment to carry out Catholic services
Why did some churches take longer to restore?
They were poorly neglected during Edwards reign
What did John Foxe believe happened as a result of the burning's?
The burning's of the Protestants were seen as a spectacle and he believed that people watching were inspired by those dedicated to being burnt so they themselves converted.
At the time of the burning's, what did the Spanish Ambassador express concern about?
He expressed concern that they would cause unrest
Who was born in October 1555?
Bishops Ridley and Latimer
When was Cranmer burnt?
When was Gardiner's death?
1) Why did Gardiner's death remove a restraining influence upon Mary?
2) What did his death lead to?
1) He initially supported the persecutions but then realised that they could cause serious unrest.
2) His death was followed by a mass of burning's - 274 perishing in the final three years of her reign
Why were the JP's delaying supporting the persecution of the Protestants.
- The war against France 1557
- The JP's were unwilling to enforce other laws such as Vagrancy Laws
Why can it be argued that Mary's marriage was the main factor in the cause of the Wyatts rebellion?
- Hatred of foreigners
- English court would be dominated by Spanish
- Drawn in the wars that would not benefit England
When was Wyatts Rebellion?
How could it be argued that the causes of the Wyatt's rebellion also had religious motives?
- The leaders from the four pronged attack all had protestant sympathies
- Wyatt was given advice from a Protestant Bishop of Winchester
- No prominent member of the plot was Catholic
- On reaching London, the rebels attacked the property of the newly restored Catholic Bishop of Winchester
What economic factors helped Wyatt gain support for the rebellion in 1554?
The cloth industry was in decline win Kent
What was the plot of action for the Wyatts rebellion?
- replace Mary with Elizabeth but Edward Courtenay exploited the plan so the rebels had to act before they were expecting
- Kent was the only support network for the rebellion instead of it being four pronged.
- Wyatt gathered a force of 300 and marched towards cooling Castle giving Mary time to gather forces which brought the rebellion to an end