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A Level Tudors > Mary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mary Deck (50):
1

Matilda was queen of England in the twelfth century, what was a result of this? and why did this have an impact on others' opinions of a female ruler?

Civil war broke out and this raised the concern that there would be no acceptance of a female ruler and therefore create instability.

2

what law did some countries use to exclude women from the throne?

Salic law

3

Why did Henry have such a great concern of having a male heir?

He believed that a female heir would create dynastic weakness

4

Give examples of why there was fears of having a female queen...

1) A woman would be unable to control faction
2) A woman would be unable to lead an army into battle
3) A woman was expected to marry but within the 16th century, women had to be subservient to their husbands.

5

What were the issues of Mary marrying either a foreigner or an Englishman?

1. Marrying an Englishman = the husbands family could rise in station and dominate court

2. Marrying a foreigner = the country would be dominated by foreigners

6

Who were the two realistic candidates for Mary's marriage? and who were they supported by?

1. Edward Courtenay = Earl of Devon (Supported by Gardiner)
2. Philip of Spain (Supported by Paget)

7

When did Mary inform the Council that she intended to marry Philip?

27 October 1553

8

When was the Marriage Treaty approved?

January 1554

9

How many months after the Lady Jane Grey affair was the Wyatt's rebellion?

six months

10

The uprising was initially going to be a four pronged attack. Where were they?

1. Devon
2. Leicestershire
3. Welsh borders
4. Kent

11

What were the other reasons for the Wyatt's rebellion?

There was also religious motives as Wyatt was a Protestant and the other leaders had links to the Protestant faith.

They planned to marry Elizabeth to Courtenay but he disclosed the scheme.

12

How did Mary deal with the Wyatt's rebellion?

She sent a militant force under Norfolk but they deserted therefore the rebels reached the gates of London.

13

How was Mary's privy council structured?

It was large and filled with her own supporters who helped her gain the throne and kept many experienced administrators.

14

Some argued that Mary's Privy council was ineffective. How is this not true?

- rare for all councillors to be present
- in 1555 an 'inner circle' council was established
- Philips departure in 1555 and the death of Gardiner allowed Paget to dominate and establish a conciliar form of government.

15

Why was there initial clashes between Gardiner and Paget?

Because of Mary's marriage choice and also the revival of the heresy laws.

16

What did the clashes between Gardiner and Paget prove?

That there was clear unpopularity with Mary's religious policies.

17

Why did Mary always refer everything to the Spanish Ambassador or the Cardinal Pole?

Because she didn't trust her councillors advice

18

What did Mary issue at the start of her reign?

a proclamation stating that she intended to cautiously change religion back to Catholicism.

19

What did Parliament refuse to repeal in 1553

Act of Supremacy

20

When was the Act of repeal passed and what did it do and what did it restore?

1553

Undid the changes made under Edward and restored the situation to that of 1547 under the Act of Six Articles

21

What did Mary suspend and why?

She suspended the Second Act of Uniformity using the royal prerogative in order to restore mass

22

1) What restored traditional Catholic practises?

2) Give examples of the practises?

1) Royal injunctions in 1554

2) holy days, processions and ceremonies

23

What happened to the initial attempts to restore the Heresy Laws in 1554?

They were rejected by parliament

24

Why wouldn't parliament agree to the Heresy Laws being reinstated in 1554?

They wouldn't pass them until there was a guarantee that the monastic lands would be restored

25

When was the Second Act of Repeal and what did it do?

November 1554 - repealed all religious legislation passed sing 1529

26

When were the Heresy Laws reintroduced?

1554

27

When did the burning's start?

February 1555

28

What measures were put into place to increase the appeal of Catholicism?

- Bishops were ordered to make regular visitations to monitor clerical behaviour
- Ending of pluralism was established
- Catholic New Testament and Book of Homilies
- Pole wanted seminaries in every diocese

29

How was Mary's return accepted within London?

Accepted greatly - there was cheering in the streets

30

What could have led Mary to believe that Catholic restoration would be simple?

The masses of support from the nation and the large number of attendance to her coronation in contrast to Lady Jane Grey

31

Why wouldn't the government pass certain laws and acts?

There was factional, economic and land concerns within the gentry as they had been buying monastic lands since 1536. Until they were guaranteed their lands and were certain of their security, the legislation were passed.

32

What can be viewed as evidence for the unpopularity of Mary's religious changes?

The Wyatt's Rebellion

33

What could Mary's marriage to Philip strengthen?

Her ability to impose religious changes and secure a Catholic succession by conceiving an heir

34

Why did Protestants decide to leave England?

Because they knew that Mary was not going to tolerate the Protestant religion and its followers

35

How many protestants fled England?

800

36

Where was there most support shown for Mary's religious changes? and how?

Through the Parishioners who raised money to purchase vestments and other equipment to carry out Catholic services

37

Why did some churches take longer to restore?

They were poorly neglected during Edwards reign

38

What did John Foxe believe happened as a result of the burning's?

The burning's of the Protestants were seen as a spectacle and he believed that people watching were inspired by those dedicated to being burnt so they themselves converted.

39

At the time of the burning's, what did the Spanish Ambassador express concern about?

He expressed concern that they would cause unrest

40

Who was born in October 1555?

Bishops Ridley and Latimer

41

When was Cranmer burnt?

March 1556

42

When was Gardiner's death?

November 1555

43

1) Why did Gardiner's death remove a restraining influence upon Mary?

2) What did his death lead to?

1) He initially supported the persecutions but then realised that they could cause serious unrest.

2) His death was followed by a mass of burning's - 274 perishing in the final three years of her reign

44

Why were the JP's delaying supporting the persecution of the Protestants.

- The war against France 1557
- The JP's were unwilling to enforce other laws such as Vagrancy Laws

45

Why can it be argued that Mary's marriage was the main factor in the cause of the Wyatts rebellion?

- Hatred of foreigners
- English court would be dominated by Spanish
- Drawn in the wars that would not benefit England

46

When was Wyatts Rebellion?

1554

47

How could it be argued that the causes of the Wyatt's rebellion also had religious motives?

- The leaders from the four pronged attack all had protestant sympathies
- Wyatt was given advice from a Protestant Bishop of Winchester
- No prominent member of the plot was Catholic
- On reaching London, the rebels attacked the property of the newly restored Catholic Bishop of Winchester

48

What economic factors helped Wyatt gain support for the rebellion in 1554?

The cloth industry was in decline win Kent

49

What was the plot of action for the Wyatts rebellion?

- replace Mary with Elizabeth but Edward Courtenay exploited the plan so the rebels had to act before they were expecting
- Kent was the only support network for the rebellion instead of it being four pronged.
- Wyatt gathered a force of 300 and marched towards cooling Castle giving Mary time to gather forces which brought the rebellion to an end

50

Why can the Wyatt's Rebellion be considered a major threat to Mary?

1) Troops that were sent to deal with Wyatt had changed sides
2) Many waited to see what happened before initially supporting Mary
3) The rising has been close to London
4) The mass support that Wyatt had