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Flashcards in EENT emergencies Deck (45)
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1

Diff areas of epistaxis?

- Keisselbach's plexus: anterior
- sphenopalatine plexus: posterior

2

How should pt be sitting w/ epistaxis? Why?

- should be sitting straight up - 90 degrees:
-this decreases nasal arterial pressures
-prevents aspiration
-may have to modify if pt appears shocky

3

Sig of posterior bleed as opposed to anterior bleed?

- distinguish b/t the 2: posterior won't stop bleeding, anterior should be able to visualize
- if packing and cauterization isn't working: most likely a posterior bleed
- posterior is more serious

4

Hx questions to ask pt w/ epistaxis?

- one nare or both
- sensation of blood in back of throat
- hx of epistaxis, trauma, head/neck tumor, radiation or head/neck surgery
- family hx of bleeding disorders
- anticoag, NSAIDs, ASA?

5

Underlying causes of epistaxis?

- nose picking
- dryness
- trauma
- anticoag or ASA therapy
- bleeding diathesis: heme (polycythemia, TTP, VW dz, hemophilia, aplastic anemia)
- FB
- allergies: nasal steroid use
- ASA? and HTN?

6

Tx of epistaxis - step 1?

step 1: start w/ direct pressure:
- compress nares b/t thumb and index finger or 2 tongue depressors taped together - for 20 minutes, have pt lead forward or sit upright
**this will have to effect on posterior bleeds

7

Step 2 tx of epistaxis?

if still bleeding after direct pressure:
- apply a topical anesthetic+vasoconstrictor
- commercial prep like Afrin and cotton balls soaked in lidocaine 2%
- or make own by mixing 2% lidocaine and 1:1000 epi and soaking cotton balls in mixture
- place impregnated cotton balls in nare x 10 min
- remove cotton ball and evacuate clot (blowing or suction)

8

Step 3 tx of epistaxis?

determine site of bleeding:
- you need good light, nasal speculum, suction, ENT chair and patience
- many times site is determined by age:
-kids - kiesselbach's area - anterior
-adults - generally posterior to kiesselbachs area
-older adults - most difficult and often posterior

9

Step 4 tx of epistaxis?

cautery w/ silver nitrate stick:
- if still bleeding and can visualize the bleeding area
- apply pressure w/ silver nitrate for 5-10 sec
- cauterize small area around bleeder as well
- apply abx oitment to area
- if this resolves the bleed then abx ointment for 7 days

10

Step 5 tx for epistaxis?

anterior packing:
- indicated if all measures up to this pt have failed
- can use nasal tampons or nasal balloon catheters
- apply topical anesthetic to nare
- apply surgical lubricant to packing
- insert along horizontal plane to max depth
- foam polymers may need water to expand, some devices may reqr inflation
- after care:
remove packing in 48-72 hrs, oral abx reqd, pt to remain upright (even sleeping) for 48 hrs, no lifting and avoid laughing for 24 hrs

11

if bleeding still exists after packing and cauterization what should you suspect?

- posterior bleed
- consult ENT emergently

12

Tx of posterior epistaxis?

- direct pressure is ineffective, nasal packs are uncomfortable to place, posterior packed pts are often admitted for observation
- ENT consult is warranted

13

Complications of posterior epistaxis?

- difficulty swallowing
- otitis media
- necrosis of nasal mucosa, TSS

14

Nasal fx: how is dx made? Management?

- MC fx bone in face
- dx based on Physical :
nose usually edematous and tender, look for displacement, crepitus, epistaxis
- inspection w/ nasal speculum mandatory to r/o septal hematoma
- mangagement: closed reduction - 2-10 days post injury to allow for reduction of swelling

15

Complications secondary to nasal fx?

- septal hematoma - complications -cause necrosis, perf septum - untx can lead to saddle nose
- infection
- obstructed airway from septal deviation
- tx: drain hematoma

16

When you see septal hematoma what should you suspect as etiology? tx? Tip off that it is a cartilage fx?

- adults: sig trauma and nasal fx
- kids: can occur w/ simple falls or minor altercations
- tx:
drain and pack, abx (augmentin) if abscess suspected - IV clinda and admission
- cartilage fx: tip off - formation of bilateral hematoma - ENT referral

17

Complications that occur from untx septal hematoma?

- saddle nose deformity
- septal abscess
- septal perf

18

Presentation of external otitis?

- aka swimmers ear: pseudomonas
- edema, erythema of EAC w/ +/- exudate
- must see TM (if not make sure you clean out ear so TM is visible - make sure not perf)
- positive pinna tug
- tx is generally application of wick and cortisporin otic, local heat, analgesia
- have to r/o malignant otitis externa (goes intracranially - osteomyelitis) - need systemic tx: really painful, cellulitis

19

CNS origin of vertigo?

- nystagmus: usually absent
- hearing loss: rare
- other neuro sxs: present
- other sxs: rare
- DDx:
drug toxicity
cerebellar stroke
brain stem stroke

- do neuro exam to diff from ear origin

20

Ear origin - vertigo?

- nystagmus: horizontal
- hearing loss: usually present
- other neuro sxs: absent
- other sxs: N/V, sweating
- DDx:
menieres
labrynthitis
acoustic neuroma
infectious

21

What is meniere's disease?

- fluctuating, progressive, sensorineural deafness
- episodic, characteristic definitive spells of vertigo lasting 20 min to 24 hrs w/ no unconscious, vestibular nystagmus always present
- usually tinnitus

***tinnitus and hearing problems, episodic nystagmus
tx: diuretics, low Na diet

22

What is acute labyrinthitis? Recovery time?

- infection in labyrinth (usually viral, may follow URI)
- recovery generally takes 1-6 wks
- an acute period, which may include severe vertigo and vomiting
- approx 2 wks of sub acute sxs and rapid recovery
-chronic compensation: may last for months - yrs

23

What is BPV?

- otoliths out of place
- perform epley maneuver to move them back
- also give antiemetics (zofran, anticholinergics - meclizine)

24

Characteristics of acute tonsilitis? Tx?

- signs and sxs: fever, beefy red tonsils w/ exudate, adenopathy common
- r/o peritonsilar abscess (uvula deviation)
- difficult to diff viral vs strep
- bacterial is usually caused by strep
- rapid strep helpful for cases that you suspect may be viral otherwise just tx
- watch for atypical resistant infection: GC pharyngitis
- sx tx, fluids, rest, ibuprofen for pain and swelling, steroid burst pack - if pts can't swallow
- for strep - PCN, amoxicillin, cephalexin, azithro

25

Centor criteria - more likely to be bacterial?

- need abx if 3 or more +:
- tonsillar exudates
- tender cervical LA
- fever or hx of
- no cough

26

What is epiglottitis? presentation?

- infection/inflammation of epiglottitis and surrounding soft tissue
- present w/: hot potato voice, stridor, tripod or sniffing position, drooling
- x ray: thumb print sign
- pathogens: H flu, strep pneumo, staph, M cat
- usually seen in kids
- if you suspect - stop and don't examine - obtain soft tissue lateral neck xray and call ENT/peds
- tx w/ rocephin, if concern for MRSA add vanco or clindamycin, MRSA - will look more toxic, more systemic sxs

27

Presentation of peritonsillar abscess? Dx, tx?

- severe pain, hoarseness, hot potato voice, drooling, dysphagia, cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, sfot palate bulging and uvula deviating away
- CT of neck is dx Test of choice
- call ENT to eval and take to OR for I and D, usually strep- start IV abx
- drain abscess is tx
- after drainage: high dose PCN, augmentin, or clindamycin for PCN allergic pts

28

Characteristics of croup?

- airway infection caused by virus (parainfluenza, RSV, influenza A, B)
- MC in kids 3 m- 3 years
- hoarse, barking cough
- tx: racemic epi and call pediatrician
- dexamethasone is usually effective for decreasing swelling of airway
warning: they usually have other viral sxs: so be careful to not miss inhaled FOB

29

What is ludwig's angina?

- cellulitis of sublingual and submandibular areas that is usually caused by normal mouth flora
- most often in pts w/ poor dental hygiene or after dental procedures
- can be life threatenign: airway obstruction, sepsis, or extension of infection into mediastinum
- submandibular pain, swelling, trismus, and dysphagia
- sublingual and submandibular tissues markedly swollen w/ woody appearance (tense)
- tongue is pushed superiorly and posteriorly
- ant/lat neck swollen and indurated: bull's neck
- tx: refer - surgery: drain and abx

30

Dental emergencies - management?

- pts will present w/ acute dental pain
- only ED tx really available is analgesia, and abx
- can do apical dental blocks
- know who to refer to