Flashcards in Pleural Effusion Deck (7)
3 mechanisms of pleural effusion?
- increased drainage of fluid into the space
- increased production of fluid by cells in the space
- decreased drainage of fluid from the space
What is intrapleural pressure?
- neg pressure is created in pleural space as thoracic cage enlarges and lungs recoil during normal inspiration
- negative pressure may be lost if fluid collects in pleural space, making the lung unable to expand fully
Normal amt of pleural fluid?
- up to 25 ml is normally present, not detectable on conventional radiographs
- pleural effusion: abnorm accum of fluid into pleural space
What are the main causes of pleural effusion?
- CHF (venous pressure increased - fluid exceeds hydrostatic pressure)
- liver failure ( decreased albumin = decreased oncotic pressure)
What is a hemothorax?
- blood in pleural cavity
- usually b/c of chest injury
- blood vessel ruptures into pleural space or bulging area into aorta (aortic aneurysm) leaks blood into pleural space
- can occur as a result of bleeding from ribs, chest wall, pleura and lung
Diff types of pleural fluid?
- transudate: serum w/o protein
- exudate: protein in fluid; infection, inflammation
- empyema: infection - pus accum
- chyle: lymph fluid (milky appearance)