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Flashcards in Electrolyte Cram Deck (35)
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1

Hyponatremia - Causes

too much H2O intake
low Na+ intake

2

Hyponatremia - Signs and Symptoms

anorexia
N/V
Twitching
Seizure
Headache
Altered mental status

3

Hyponatremia - Dx

Chest CT to rule out Lung cancer

4

Hyponatremia - Treatment

slow Na replacement
monitor fluid status

5

Hypernatremia - Causes

to much Na intake and water loss, increase ADH
"broken thirst mechanism"

6

Thirst mechanism

increase Na, hypothalamus triggers thirst, ADH is released to absorb more H2O

7

Hypernatremia - Dx

UA - NA
increase = renal
decrease = external

8

Hypernatremia - Treatment

free H2O intake PO or IV
-rapid fluid replacement can cause pulmonary and cerebral edema

9

Hypovolemia hyponatremia - causes

Renal
-Salt loosing nephritis
-Hypoaldosteronism
-Osmotic diuretics
-Thiazides
Non-renal
-N/V
-Diarrhea
-Burns
-Sweating

10

Hypovolemia hyponatremia - Treatment

Isotonic fluids

11

Hypervolemia hyponatremia

more water not enough salt

12

Hypervolemia hyponatremia - causes

CHF
Cirrhosis
Nephrotic syndrome

13

Hypervolemia hyponatremia - treatment

diuretics or dialysis in severe cases

14

Isovolemic/Euvolemic hyponatremia

retaining fluid

15

Isovolemic/Euvolemic hyponatremia - causes

SIADH
Hypothyroidism
Glucocorticoid deficiency

16

Isovolemic/Euvolemic hypoatremia - treatment

treat underlying condition

17

Hypokalemia -mnemonic

CCHEM - RG - Suction

18

Hypokalemia - causes

Cushings
CHF
Hyperaldosterone
Elevated glucose
Meds
Renal tubular acidosis
GI loss

19

Hypokalemia - presentation

Skeletal weakness
U wave
Constipation
Toxicity
Irregular weak pulse
Orthostatic hypotension
Numbness

20

Hypokalemia - complications

cardiac arrest

21

Hyperkalemia - mnemonic

Camm - RN - Tall tented T wave

22

Hyperkalemia - causes

Cell injury
ACE
Meds
Metabolicacidosis
Renal failure
NSAIDs

23

Hyperkalemia - ECG

Torsades and tall tented T wave

24

Hyperkalemia - treatment - mild

K+ wasting diuretics

25

Hyperkalemia - treatment moderate

K+ binders (SPS)

26

Hyperkalemia - Severe

IV calcium gluconate (ECG changes)
Sodium bicarb (acidosis)

27

Hypocalcemia - causes

CKD (MC)
hypoparathyroid
decrease intake/absorption
CV collapse

28

Hypocalcemia - signs

Trousseau's and Chvostek's

29

Hypercalcemia - mnemonic

POST-AND-C

30

Hypercalcemia - causes

Polyuria
Orthostatic hypotension
Stuppor
Tachy
Anorexia
Nausea
Dehydration
Constipation