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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (41)
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0

Normal Range for serum sodium?

135-145mEq/L

1

Name the causes for Hyponatremia.

Increased sodium excretion
(N/D/V, diuretics, wound drainage, kidney disease, or decreased secretion of aldosterone)

Inadequate sodium intake

Dilution of serum sodium
(Excessive hypotonic fluids, kidney disease, freshwater drowning, hyperglycemia, or Heart Failure)

2

Name the causes for Hypernatremia.

Decreased sodium excretion
(Cushings, corticosteroids, kidney disease, hyperaldosteroism)

Increased sodium intake

Decreased water intake

Increased water loss

3

Name common food sources for Sodium.

Bacon
Butter
Canned food
Cheese
Ketchup and Mustard
Lunch meat
Milk
Processed foods
Soy sauce
Table salt
White and whole wheat bread

4

Hyponatremia signs and symptoms

*think Neurological

Skeletal muscle weakness

Increased urinary output and GI motility

Mental Changes

5

Hypernatremia signs and symptoms

*think neurological

Extreme thirst

Decreased urinary output

Muscle twitching and/or weakness

6

Interventions for Hyponatremia

Monitor electrolytes

IV sodium chloride infusion (if both fluid & sodium are decreased)

Osmotic diuretic administered (if sodium is low and fluid volume is high)

Increase oral sodium intake

Monitor closely if taking Lithium (Hyponatremia can cause lithium toxicity)

7

Interventions for Hypernatremia

Monitor electrolytes

Prepare to administer IV infusions if the cause is fluid loss

If caused by inadequate renal excretion than administer diuretics that promote sodium loss

Restrict sodium & fluid intake as prescribed

8

Normal range for serum Potassium

3.5-5.0

9

Name the causes for Hypokalemia

Excessive potassium intake

Decreased potassium excretion
(Kidney disease, potassium retaining diuretics, or adrenal insufficiency like Addisons)

Potassium shifting from intercellular fluid to extracellular fluid
(Tissue damage, acidosis, hyperuricemia, or hypercatabloism)

10

Name Common Foods rich in Potassium

Avocado
Bananas
Cantaloupe
Carrots
Fish
Mushrooms
Oranges
Potatoes
Pork, beef, veal
Raisins
Spinach
Strawberries
Tomatoes

11

Name the signs & symptoms of Hypokalemia

*think Cardiac

Thready, weak irregular heart rate

Muscle cramps

Arrhythmias that can be life threatening

12

Name the signs & symptoms of Hyperkalemia


*think Cardiac

Slow, weak irregular heart rate

Muscle twitching initially then followed by flaccid paralysis

Arrhythmias that can be life threatening

13

Aldosterone increases when........

Blood Volume goes down

14

Where is aldosterone found?

Name the diseases the result from too much aldosterone being secreted and too little being secreted.

Aldosterone is found in the adrenal glands

Too Much: cushings and hyperaldosteroism

Too Little: Addisons

15

Where is ANP found and what is it's function?

ANP is found in the atria of the heart and is a hormone that works on the kidneys to reduce blood volume.

16

Where is ADH found and what is its function?

What are some common causes?

ADH is found in the pituitary and makes your body retain water.

Causes can include Increased ICP, head injury, craniotomy, or transphenoidal hypophysectomy.

17

Name the disease caused by too much ADH and some common signs and symptoms.

SIADH (makes you go into FVE)

Urine decreases and is concentrated
Blood is diluted (low electrolyte levels)
S/S of FVE

18

Name the disease caused by not enough ADH and common sign and symptoms.

Diabetes Insipidus (which causes FVD)

Urine is diluted and blood is concentrated (high electrolyte levels)

Watch for shock!
Has NOTHING to do with blood sugar!

19

The Removal of the pituitary gland through the sinuses is called:

Transphenoidal Hypophysectomy

20

Treatment for FVE:

Low Na diet/restrict fluids as ordered
Weights daily
Bed rest
Physical assessments

Diuretics

21

Name the treatments for FVD:

Prevent further fluid loss
Replace fluid loss by PO and/or IV fluids

Monitor for fluid overload
At higher risk for falls r/t vitals and LOC

22

Isotonic solutions and contradiction uses:

Normal Saline (0.9%)
LR
d5W
D5 1/2 NS

Contradiction w/clients with HTN, cardiac disease, or renal disease because these solutions can cause FVE

23

Name examples of hypotonic solutions and contradictions.

D2.5W, 1/2NS. 0.33%NS

*rehydrates cells but does not cause HTN

Contradictions: watch for cellular edema and FVD, which would cause decreased B/P

24

Name hypertonic solutions and contradictions:

D10W, 3%NS, 5%NS, D5LR, D5 1/2NS, TPN, and Albumin

Used for patients who have developed 3rd spacing, severe edema, burns, and/or ascites.

*watch for FVE!

25

Normal lab value for Calcium

8.6-10.5mg/dl

26

Name 3 causes of Hypercalcemia

6 Signs & Symptoms

6 Treatments

Hyperparathyroidism, thiazides, immobilization

S/S: brittle bones, kidney stones, ^b/p, muscle weakness, decreased DTRs, and decreased pulse

Tx: bear weight(move!), push fluids as ordered (prevent kidney stones), Pospho Soda Fleet Enema, Steroids, add phosphorus diet, and/or Calcitonin

27

Normal Lab Value for Magnesium

1.2-2.6mg/dl

28

Name 3 causes for HyperMagnesium

Identify 6 Signs & Symptoms

Name 4 Treatments

Causes: Renal Failure, Antacids, Overdose of Mg

S/S: flushing~warmth, vasodilation, decreased DTRs, decreased LOC, muscle weakness, and drowsiness

Tx: Ventilator (if RR<12rpm)
Dialysis (if kidneys not working properly)
Calcium Gluconate IV slowly (antidote to Mg toxicity)
Safety Precautions

29

Name 3 causes of HypoCalcemia

Name 6 signs & symptoms

Name 3 treatments

Causes: Hypoparathyroidism, Radical Neck, and Thyroidectomy

S/S: Mind changes, rigid/tight muscle tone, possible seizures, +chovstek's(cheek tap), +Trousseau's( b/p cuff, increased DTRs, & swallowing problems

Tx: Vitamin D
Phosphate Binders
IV Ca (given slowly) w/heart monitor