Embolic Events- Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Embolic Events- Exam 2 Deck (46)
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Flush with Co2, what percent of bubbles are gone within 1 minute?



Why do you co2 flush?

Helps with air solubility, some of that CO2 transfers to the blood and PaCo2 will increase, increases vasodilation. Any type of embolism makes it easier to go to the brain


What, involving the venous reservoir, can lead to pumping air?

Inattention to level in venous reservoir
Vortexing of blood in venous reservoir at low volume levels
Pressurized cardiotomy reservoir


What involving the pump can lead to pumping air?

Reversed roller pump
retrograde flow through centrifugal pump
runaway pump
mechanical jarring of circuit components
over occluded arterial pump head


What involving the tubing can lead to pumping air?

Tubing reversed in roller head
leak/kink in tubing on negative side of the roller pump
disconnection/breakage, detachment of tubing


What involving the oxygenator can lead to pumping air?

disconnection/breakage detachment of oxygenator
pulsatile flow through microporous membrane oxygenator


What involving the arterial filter can lead to pumping air?

Inadequate debubbling, especially the arterial filter


What involving drugs can lead to air?

Drug injections into circuit and perfusion interventions


What involving volume can lead to air?

Inattention while transfusing volume to patient post bypass


What was the highest incidence of CPB emergency? Second highest?

Inattention to reservoir level (37%)
Aortic root air during CPS aminitration (29%)


What has the highest proportion of total emboli?

then blood samples


Blood-Bubble Interactions

Adsorption/denaturation plasma proteins
Adsoprtion phospholipids
Adsorption fibrinogen
Complement activation
Clumping red blood cells
Leukocyte activation/adherence
Lipid peroxidation
Microthrombi production
Platelet activation/adherence
Thrombin activation
Phospholipase activation
Endothelial wall damage


Safety Devices

Low level alarm
Air bubble detector
Arterial line filter (cardiotomy filter)
one-way purge line form arterial line filter to cardiotomy reservoir
one-way valve in vent line
one-way valve in arterial line
clear lines of ocmmunication
use of protocols, policies and procedures
Use of prebypass checklist


How do you minimize biologic emboli formation?

use of transfusion filters
adequate anticoagulation
design of circuit components
minimize surface area of circuit
use of membrane oxygenator
minimize complement/ immune activation
minimize platelet activation
minimize neutrophil activation


How do you minimize introduction of foreign particle emboli?

Componnet design and manufacturing
circulate crystalloid solution through entire circuit
flush circuit with cystalloid solution in conjuction with a pre-bypass filter in AV loops
don't use silicone tubing in arterial pump head
use medical grade tubing


How do you minimize formation of gaseous microemboli?

Check all equipment for proper operation
ensure all tubing/ component connections are secure
flush circuit with co2 prior to priming
careful priming of arterial filter
warm prime- then let it cool
check circuit for proper alignment of tubing and components
proper use of all safety devices
open one=way purge line form arterial filter to cardiotomy reservoir
use of pressure relief valve on venous reservoir when using VAVD
test vent line prior to attachment to vent catheter
Continual circuit scan while on bypass
continual monitoring of centrifugal pump flow and RPM-ensure forward flow at all times
avoid air in venous line