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Flashcards in Emergency Procedures Deck (43):

Land immediately

Execute a landing without delay


Land as soon as possible

Land at the first site at which a safe landing can be made


Land as soon as practicable

Extended flight is not recommended. The landing site and duration of flight is at the discretion of the pilot in command


-Fire warning light illuminated
-Fuel fumes
-Indication from ground personnel
-Grinding noises/apparent drive train damage

Emergency Shutdown
*Twist Grip- close
*Fuel valve-off
*Batt switch-off
*(c) STBY ATT IND switch- off
*(c) rotor brake- engage immediately
*Helicopter- Egress and use fire bottle as required to extinguish the fire or get clear of the aircraft

Warning- After exiting aircraft, beware of rotor blades


Abort start

*Twist grip- close
*Starter-secure after TOT stabilizes at or below 400*C

Note- If a subsequent start is attempted, utilize a GPU


-TOT rises above 400*C
-Flames or smoke coming from the engine

Post Shutdown Fire (Internal)
*Starter- engage
*Fuel valve-off
*Ignitor circuit breaker- pull
*Starter- secure after fire is extinguished


-Nr decrease
-Rapid settling
-Left Yaw
-GEN FAIL light

Engine Failure in Flight
*Shoulder harness- lock
If time and altitude permit:
*Engine restart in flight procedure- perform as required


Rapid loss of Nr
Severe nose tucking

Engine Failure at High Airspeed and Low Altitude
*Cyclic- immediately apply aft

Warning- Rapid cyclic movement may cause mast bumping



Land as soon as possible


-Popping, rumbling, loud band
-Abnormal vibrations
-Rapid rise or fluctuations in TOT
-Torque fluctuations with yaw kicks
-Ng fluctuations
-Loss of power

Compressor stall
*ENG anti-ice switch- on
*Cabin heat valve- on
*Check power available
If power is insufficient for continued flight:
*Twist grip- flight idle
If power is sufficient to maintain level flight:
*Land as soon as possible

Note- Depending on time, altitude, and suitability of the landing site the pilot may attempt to increase the twist grip after the compressor stall has cleared to affect a power on landing. Increasing the twist grip may re-aggravate the compressor stall

Note- If some useable power still exists but level flight cannot be maintained, that power, if sufficient, may be utilized to effect a landing or minimize ROD enroute to suitable site for autorotation.


-Low Nr
-Low Nf

Underspend g Nf/Nr
*Collective- lower as required to maintain a minimum of 90% Nr
*Twist grip- full open
*GOV ROM- full increase
If underspeed persists:
*Check power available with Nr in limits
If power is not sufficient:
If sufficient power is available:
*Land as soon as possible

Warning- Be prepared for complete power loss

Note- Power available is considered to be sufficient if level flight can be maintained with Nr at 90% or higher. Do not decelerate below 50 KIAS (minimum power airspeed) while executing a power check.

Note- If some useable power still exists but level flight cannot be maintained, that power, if sufficient, may be utilized to effect a landing or minimize ROD enroute to suitable site for autorotation.

Note- If power available exceed power required to hover in ground effect, a normal approach to a hover can be executed. If power available is less than power required to hover, but level flight can be maintained, fly to a safe landing area and execute a no-hover landing or sliding landing. Terrain permitting, a sliding landing requires the least amount of power.


-Uncommanded descent with torque at maximum available
-Rotor droop
-Loss of tail rotor authority

Power required exceeds power available
*Collective- lower as required to maintain a minimum of 90% Nr
*Twist grip- full open
*Angle of bank- level wings
*Airspeed- adjust to 50 KIAS (minimum power required airspeed)
*Jettison- as required
If impact is imminent:
*Level the aircraft to conform to terrain
*Cushion the landing


-Excessive roll rates abut a pivot point when lift approximately equals weight
-Lateral control becomes sluggish or ineffectual
-Cyclic contacts lateral stop

Dynamic Rollover
*Collective- lower to stop roll
*Cyclic- neutral

Warning- With one skid on the ground and thrust approximately equal to weight, if the control becomes sluggish or ineffectual, contacts the lateral stop, or if bank angle or roll rates become excessive (15* or 10* per second respectively) the aircraft may roll

Warning- Failure to keep the aircraft in trim during takeoff or landing could result in dynamic rollover.


-Nr increase
-Nf increase
-Ng increase
-TOT increase
-Right yaw
-Engine noise increase

Engine Overspeed Rotor RPM
*Twist grip- reduce (to maintain Nf/Nr in operating range)
*Collective/twist grip- coordinate
*Land as soon as possible

Note- The Nf Overspeed must be controlled by coordinating collective and twist grip


-Erratic Nf
-Fluctuating Ng and TOT

Fuel Control Failure
*Collective- adjust as required to maintain Nr in operating range
*Twist grip- adjust (to maintain Nf/Ng in operating range)
*Land as soon as possible

Note- Be prepared for complete power loss


Engine Restart on Flight

*Ng- note
If Ng is below 12%:
*Twist grip- close
*Starter- on
*At 12% Ng, twist grip- full open
If Ng is 12% or above:
*Starter- on
*At 58% Ng, starter- off
If light off occurs:
*Land as soon as possible

Note- Main generator and BUS/TIE RELAY (C) may need to be reset


-Nr decrease
-Nf indication higher than Nr
-Left yaw
-Loud bang/sound of overspending engine
-Low torque

Main Drive Shaft Failure
*Twist grip- adjust, as necessary, to maintain Nf in operating range
When on deck:
Emergency shutdown- complete

Warning- The engine must continue to operate to provide tail rotor drive. Tail rotor authority may be lost of Nf is allowed to go below 80%.

Note- The Nf governor should bring the Nf back to 100% with the twist grip full open.


-Nf indication higher than Nr
-Low torque indication
-Ng and TOT indications lower than normal and not responsive to collective

Sprag clutch slippage
*Twist grip- flight idle
If time and altitude permit:
*Twist grip- smoothly rotate to full open
If Nf/Nr are married:
*Collective- increase
If sprag clutch continues to slip:
*Twist grip- closed
If the sprag clutch reengages:
*Land as soon as possible

Caution- After completing the authoritative landing, ensure the twist grip is secured. Failure to do so may result in sudden reengagement of the sprag clutch, causing severe damage to the drive system.

Note- Multiple attempts to reengage the sprag clutch are permitted dependent on time and altitude.


-Nf/Nr married during shutdown
-Nf/Nr married above 100% during autorotation all flight

Sprag clutch seizure
*Ensure twist grip is full open
*Land as soon as possible

Warning- If suspected during a practice autorotation, execute a wave off.


-Abnormal transmission temperature/pressure indications

Imminent Transmission Failure
-Land immediately
-Shoulder harness- lock

Warning- Excessive power changes may accelerate transmission degradation.


-Fire light

Engine Fire in Flight
*Confirm existence of a fire
If fire exists:
*Land immediately
*Emergency engine shutdown- complete after landing
If fire is not confirmed:
*Land as soon as possible

Warning- Be prepared for complete power loss.


Fuselage Fire

*Land immediately
*Emergency shutdown- complete

Warning- Fire extinguisher fluid vapors are dangerous; fire extinguisher use should be limited to a well ventilated are. A moving TH57 with cabin cents and window. Open s considered a well ventilated area.

Note- A side slip may be desirable to keep the flame from spreading.


Fuel Boost Pump Failure

*Descent-initiate if above 6,000' PA
*Fuel pressure and quantity- Note
If both fuel pumps have failed:
*Land as soon as possible
If only one boost pump has failed:
*Land as soon as practicable

Warning- With one or both boost pumps inoperative 10 gallons are unusable.

Warning- Dual boost pump failure may lead to engine failure.


-Unusable fuel usage
-Fuel fumes in cockpit

Suspected Fuel Leakage
*Land as soon as possible
If time and altitude permit:
*Transmit position and intentions
*Unnecessary electrical equipment-secure

Warning- If an air leak exists in the fuel lines between the boost pumps and engine, turning off all electrical power could cause an engine flameout due to a total loss of boost pump pressure.


-Sharp two-rev knocking

Mast bumping
*Establish a positive G-load and/or balanced flight (as required)
*Land immediately

Note- If ,sat bumping occurs while on deck, maintenance action is required before flight.


-Smoke from unknown origin
-Loadmeter shows excessive load
-DC voltmeter shows a decrease in voltage

Electrical Fire-unknown origin
*BATT switch- off
*(c) STBY GEN switch- off
*(c) if in VMC, STBY ATT IND switch- off
*Main GEN switch- off
If fire persists:
*Land immediately
If fire extinguishes:
*Land as soon as possible

Note- Flight operation can be maintained without battery and generator. Instruments powered by 28 VDC, however, will be inoperable.

Note- Voltmeters will not indicate battery voltag until battery bus supply and voltmeter circuit breakers are in.


-Smoke from known origin
-Loadmeter shows excessive load
-DC voltmeter shows a decrease in voltage

Electrical Fire-known origin
*Affected equipment- secure
*Affected circuit breakers-pull
If fire persists:
Electrical fire-- unknown origin procedure- execute
If fire extinguishes:
*Land as soon as practicable


-Fumes in cockpit
-Smoke in cockpit

Smoke and Fume Elimination
*ECS and DEFOG blower switch- off
*Vents/window- open
*Slip or skid the aircraft to eliminate smoke and fumes


-Cyclic/collect e control displaced to an abnormal position
-Pilot control of cyclic/collective is difficult or impossible

Hydraulic Power Cylinder Malfunction
*HYDRAULIC BOOST switch- off
*Helicopter- regain control
*Airspeed- adjust to obtain most comfortable control movement level
*Land as soon as possible

Warning- Hydraulic system will not secure if HYD BOOST circuit breaker is out

Warning- In event of a complete loss of electrical power (B) or a failure of the ESS No 2 buss (C), the hydraulic system will reenergize in the malfunction mode. The pilot will be unable to override the hydraulic boost solenoid.


High Frequency Vibrations

*ECS - off
If vibrations continue:
*Land as soon possible

Warning- Be prepare to execute Complete Loss of Tail Rotor Thrust procedures

Warning- Increased power settings required to accomplish a normal approach may ultimately precipitate the complete failure of a malfunctioning tail rotor. Be prepared for uncommanded right yaw in the event of complete loss of tail rotor thrust during the approach. Consideration should be given to maintaining an autorotative profile or low-powered approach.


-Uncommanded right roll
-Reduced cyclic effectiveness

Uncommanded Right Roll During Flight Below 1G
*Cyclic- Immediately apply aft to establish a positive g load on rotor, then center laterally
When main rotors return to a positive thrust condition:
*Controls- as required to regain balanced flight
If mast bumping has occurred:
*Land immediately


-Progressively increasing two per revolution vibration
-Loss of longitudinal control and severe feedback in cyclic
-Violent vertical nose oscillations independent of cyclic position

Rotor Blade Stall
*Severity of maneuver- decrease
*Collective- decrease
*Airspeed- Decrease
*Altitude- decrease, if flight permits
*Rotor RPM- increase

Warning- Entry into severe blade stall can result in structural damage to the helicopter switch could lead to loss of aircraft, injury, or death.


-Rapid descent rate increase
-Increase in overall vibration level
-Loss of control effectiveness

Vortex Ring State
*Collective- decrease
*Cyclic- forward to gain airspeed
If impact is imminent:
*Level skids to conform to terrain

Warning- Increasing collective has no effect toward recovery and will aggravate vortex ring state. During approaches at less than 40 KIAS, do not exceed 800 fpm descent rate.


-Pedal input has no effect on helicopter trim
-Right yaw (left sideslip)
-Left roll of fuselage along the longitudinal axis
-Loud bang
Delayed onset indications:
-High frequency vibrations
-Whining, grinding
-Yaw kicks, often during power changes
-Restricted or difficult movement of pedals
-Unusual pedal positions

Complete Loss of Tail Rotor Thrust
In a hover:
*Twist grip- flight idle
*Cyclic- eliminate drift
*Collective- increase to cushion landing
Transition of forward flight or hover/air taxi:
*Twist grip- flight idle
*Cyclic-Eliminate sideward drift
*Collective- increase to cushion landing
At altitude:
If yaw is not controllable:
*Twist grip- flight idle immediately
If yaw is controllable:
*Continue powered flight and set up to a suitable landing area at or above minimum ROD autorotational airspeed
*Twist grip- rotate to flight idle prior to touchdown

Warning- autorotation may be the safest option. Attempting to control loss of tail rotor thrust in powered flight requires considerable skill and ,at result in loss of aircraft control.

Warning- Airspeed indications during side-slip are unreliable. At airspeed below approximately 50 KIAS, the side-slip may suddenly become uncontrollable, and the helicopter will begin an unrecoverable vertical axis "flat-spin".

Warning- If attempting to achieve higher air speeds, care must be taken to avoid excessive cyclic inputs with large power settings that could lead to mast bumping or rapid nose tucking.

Warning- In the autorotation, maintain airspeed above minimum ROD airspeed until flare to avoid loss of yaw control.

Warning- Once engine is secured, in the absence of torque, the lift produced by the vertical fin may tend to yaw the nose left at faster airspeeds. As airspeed slows and Nr decays, the decelerating rotor head and swashplate friction will create additional left yaw, increasing the chance for rollover. Depending on landing profile, consideration should be given to leaving the test grip open until pulling the collective at the bottom of the autorotation to allow control of yaw with twist grip.

Note- Depending on the nature of the failure and degree of damage, airspeeds between 50-72 KIAS may provide the best opportunity to maintain level flight.

Note- a non-typical nose down attitude ,any be required to achieve a desired airspeed due to increased drag on the tail.

Note- Turns to the right may provide greater controllability of airspeed and potentially minimize altitude loss.

Note- Banking to the left will aid in counteracting torque.


-Pedals locked in fixed position because of FOD
-Control linkage failure during a right-pedal applied situation
-Pilot unable to control right yaw with pedal input. If power is increase it will aggravate the degree of yaw or sideslip.

Fixed Pitch (Low Power)
If the rate of rotation is not excessive and landing surface is smooth and firm:
*Collective- decrease to effect a power on landing
If rate of rotation is excessive or landing sue we is unsuitable for a power on landing:
*Twist grip- reduce as nose approaches windpipe
*Cyclic- eliminate drift
*Collective- increase to cushion landing

Warning- If it becomes necessary to use large collective inputs to wave off near the deck, the nose will yaw right and possibly enter uncontrolled flight.


-Pedals locked in fixed position because of FOD
-Control linkage failure during a left-pedal applied situation
-Pilot unable to control left yaw with pedal input. If power is decreased it will aggravate the degree of yaw or sideslip.

Fixed Pitch (Hugh Power)
If the rate of rotation is not excessive and landing surface is smooth and firm:
*Collective- decrease to effect a power on landing
If rate of rotation is excessive or landing surface is smooth and firm:
*Smoothly increase collective to stop left yaw
*When the left yaw has stopped, smoothly decrease collective to set up for landing.
*Eliminate lateral drift with cyclic as aircraft settles
*Continue to smoothly lower collective once on deck to control yaw and transfer aircraft weight to skids

Note- Step 2&3 may need to be repeated until acceptable yaw conditions are established for landing.


Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness

*Pedals- Maintain full left pedal
*Collective- Lower (as altitude permits)
*Cyclic- Forward to increase airspeed
If spin cannot be stopped:
*Autorotative landing-Execute


-Torque enter is unusually lo or falls to zero with corresponding digital readout

*Monitor engine instruments
*Land as soon as possible


-Engine/Transmission oil pressures not in normal range

*Land as soon as possible

Warning- With suspected transmission malfunctions, the pilot should make an approach with minimum power changes to minimize changes to transmission torque.

Note- Check the transmission oil pressure with the twist grip full open. Illumination of the TRANS OIL PRESS caution light is common while the twist grip is at flight idle; however, the gauge should indicate positive transmission oil pressure.

Note- There is no detrimental effect to the transmission system with oil pressure between 50-70 psi with transmission temperature within limits. Pressure indications between50-70 psi shall be documented on a MAF upon completion of flight.


-Airspeed/VSI/altimeter fluctuates erratically or gives apparently false indications while power and attitude instruments are normal.

Pitot-Static Instruments
*Pitot-Heat switch- Heat
*(c) Alternate static source knob-pull
Monitor cruise power settings and nose attitudes to maintain altitude and airspeed. If pitot heat does not remedy the situation, accomplish the following:
If icing conditions are present:
Icing procedures-execute
If icing conditions are not present:
*Land as soon as possible


Emergency Descent

*Collective- lower (to minimum pitch)
*Airspeed- 130 KIAS (122 KIAS maximum with AFCS on)

Note- During recovery, Nr may tend to overspeed



*(c) Alternate static source knob- as required
*Descend or climb to a warmer temperature or vacate clouds/moisture
If unable to get clear or icing conditions:
*Land as soon as possible

Warning- Monitor engine instruments and be prepared doe a partial or complete power loss.


Emergency Egress

*PIC- call to abandon aircraft
*Shoulder harness- lock
*Mayday- transmit
*Transponder- emergency
*Emergency engine shutdown- perform as required
*SEBD- don,as required
*Communication cords- disconnect
*Doors- open/ jettison, as required
After all violent motion has stopped:
*Place hand on known reference point
*Shoulder harness/ lapbelt- release
*LPU- inflate, as required