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You have been called to the scene of an automobile accident. Your patient complains of pain in their upper right quadrant of the abdomen. What organs are you concerned about?
Sigmoid colon


The quadrants of the abdomen are defined by the umbilicus and the midline of the abdomen. Top right quadrant includes the organs of the liver, gallbladder and some of the colon. The top left quadrant encompasses the spleen and stomach. The lower right quadrant includes the ascending colon, cecum, appendix and small intestine. The descending colon, sigmoid colon and small intestinal organs are associated with the lower left quadrant. It is important to remember that the quadrants are defined by the patient's left and right.


The spinal cord is composed of:
Cerebrospinal fluid


The spinal cord is made up of neurons. It is protected by the vertebral column which is composed of vertebrae.


You determine that your 62-year-old male patient is hypoglycemic. His vital are: BP 110/63, P 92, R 20, CBG 41 mg/dL. He is lying supine in his bed, unconscious, but will moan when you touch him. You should do what next?
Administer 25 g oral glucose in the pt's mouth between the cheeks and gums
Administer 25 g oral glucose and transport immediately
Transport immediately
Administer insulin

Transport immediately

A contraindication to oral glucose is unconsciousness and inability to swallow, making glucose inappropriate for this patient. EMT's never give insulin.


The Krebs cycle is responsible for yielding a high amount of energy for the body to use. Which of the following answers requires oxygen and is most efficient?
Citric acid cycle
Anaerobic metabolism
Aerobic metabolism

Aerobic metabolism


Hypothermia could best be described as which of the following?
Too hot
Too cold
Short of breath

Too cold

Hypothermia is a condition where the core temperature of the body is lowered. There are 5 stages in varying degrees of core temperature.


You are dispatched emergent to a baseball game to find your patient sitting on the bleachers after being struck in the head by a foul ball. His chief complaint is ringing in the ears, which is also known as?



When a person is involved in a frontal impact, the patient will travel in one of three pathways. Which is not one of the pathways a patient will travel?
Up-and-over pathway
Down-and-under pathway



Mrs. Swenson is a 35-year-old female who has been impaled through the cheek by a large fishing lure. She is unconscious and has a small amount of bleeding coming from her cheek. The fishing lure is inside her mouth. When caring for this patient you should?
Stabilize the fishing lure and bandage around it
Hold the fishing lure in the patient's mouth to prevent choking, but leave it impaled
Remove the fishing lure
Remove the fishing lure and place gauze on the inside of the cheek to stop bleeding

Remove the fishing lure

An impaled object should be removed in only two cases. First, when it is impaled through the chest and prevents CPR. Second, when it could cause an airway obstruction. In this case the fishing lure has potential to cause an airway obstruction in your unconscious patient and should be removed. Placing gauze on the inside of the cheek also poses a possible airway obstruction.


You are called to an airport where a 45-year-old female has just returned from the Caribbean. She reports abnormal irritability, chest pains, numbness in her legs, and deep pains in her muscles and joints. These symptoms most strongly suggest?
Internal bleeding
Intoxication or poisoning
An air embolism
Decompression sickness

Decompression sickness

These are the classic signs of decompression sickness. Deep pain in the muscle and joints are also known as "the bends". It would be appropriate to question this patient about scuba diving on her vacation.


Which of the following substances is a nerve agent?
Sulfur mustard
Chlorine gas


Sarin is a weaponized nerve agent. Some fertilizers, such as organophosphates, causes the same symptoms as a nerve agent exposure.


It is extremely important that EMTs know the limitation of their tools and equipment. The preferred mode of transporting a patient over a large amount of rough terrain, such as a hiking trail, to an ambulance is?
A portable stretcher
A basket stretcher
A scoop (orthopedic) stretcher
A rigid backboard

A basket stretcher


There is a multiple car accident on the freeway at 9:30 A.M. You arrive on the scene after the fire department and law enforcement has secured the scene. You notice multiple patients that are lying on the ground with massive wounds and blood pooling. A few patients are sitting on the barrier, talking and appear to have minimal injuries. Finally, there are a few patients still in their vehicles, and you notice firefighters working on extricating them. You are the only emergency medical staff available at this moment and are assigned to triage the scene. You decide to give the patients sitting on the barrier a triage priority number of?


There are 4 major priority rankings for triage: Priority 1, for patients that are in critical condition and need immediate care and transport. These patients typically are unstable and cannot walk. Priority 2 patients may not be able to walk, but are otherwise stable and can be delayed in care and transport. Priority 3 patients have minor injuries and are able to walk. You can usually sort these patients out by asking anyone who can walk to move to a separate location. Priority 4 (or 0 in some cases) patients are dead or in conditions that would not allow transport and recovery. In this situation, your patients that were able to move and sit on the barrier would be considered priority 3 patients.


The police departments asks for a medic unit to respond to a private residence for an assault victim. You find a 38-year-old male who is combative and confused with a large gash on his head. After multiple attempts to get the patient to allow you to help him, he still refuses to allow treatment. Your best course of action would be?
Restrain the patient and treat him
Continue asking him until he allows you to treat him
Have the police sign the AMA form for the patient
Contact Medical Control for advice

Restrain the patient and treat him

This patient is believed to have a head injury, which can cause the patient to be confused and combative. He needs to be transported and evaluated by a physician, and is unable to sign a refusal because he is not oriented appropriately. Our goal is never to restrain someone against their wishes, but implied consent dictates that if the patient were acting normally, he would want to be treated.


You are assessing a male adult patient you suspect was exposed to nerve gas. When assessing this patient, which pneumonic will help you determine if the symptoms match your suspicion of injury?


DUMBELS: defecation, urination, miosis, bradycardia, emesis, lacrimation, salivation. These symptoms are all consistent with nerve agent poisoning, which inhibits acetylcholinesterase from the breakdown of acetycholine. This leads to over-stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system.


A radio's frequency refers to the number of times per ______________ a radio wave oscillates?



You are on the scene of a 15-year-old female who is presenting with a panic attack. The patient appears very upset, is crying and breathing at a rate of 38/minute, and complaining of numbness and tingling in her extremities. The patient's boyfriend tells you the patient is scheduled to have an abortion at a clinic today. Which type of abortion is this pt having?
Incomplete abortion
Complete abortion
Threatened abortion
Therapeutic abortion

Therapeutic abortion

Complete abortion is the passage of all fetal tissue before 20 weeks of gestation. An incomplete abortion is failing to pass all fetal tissue. Threatened abortion refers to frank bleeding or discharge during the first half of pregnancy without dilation. Planned surgical removal of the fetus from the uterus is a therapeutic abortion.


After arriving to the residence of a woman in active labor, you determine that it is best for both the mother and the baby that delivery takes place immediately. As a health-care provider, what is your biggest concern for the mother?
Heart failure
Occlusive Stroke
Blood Loss

Blood Loss


You have responded to a college campus for the report of a person who is unconscious and unresponsive. Your patient is a 19-year-old female student who is unconscious and unresponsive. The patient has snoring respirations with a respiratory rate of four breaths/minute and is becoming cyanotic around the lips. Her friends tell you that she just tried heroine for the first time. Your partner opens the patient's airway with a head tilt/chin lift and begins ventilating the patient with high-flow oxygen at a rate of 12 breaths/minute. Based on the information given to you by the patient's friend, you suspect a possible heroin overdose. You get a pen light out of your kit and assess the patient's pupils. Which cranial nerve is responsible for pupil size, shape, and reactivity?
Olfactory (I)
Optic (II)
Oculomotor (III)
Trochlear (IV)

Oculomotor (III)

Cranial nerves II, III, and IV are all associated with the eyes. The Optic nerve (II) is responsible for our ability to see. The Oculomotor nerve (III) is responsible for pupil size, shape, and reactivity. The Trochlear nerve is responsible for gaze.


The esophagus is what to the trachea?


The esophagus lies behind the trachea. The word posterior indicates that the esophagus lies closer to the back of the person than the trachea.


follows a specific pathway through the heart. After traveling through the right atrium, blood goes through WHICH valve into the right ventricle?
Aortic Valve
Pulmonary Valve
Bicuspid Valve
Tricuspid Valve

Tricuspid Valve

The pathway of blood through the heart is superior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, lungs for oxygenation, pulmonary valve, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta.


Delayed capillary refill times are a result of decreases in perfusion to the skin. Which of the following is not a cause of delayed capillary refill time?
Increase in contractility of the heart muscle
Decrease in body temperature to 94 degrees Fahrenheit
Decrease in fluid uptake, leading to dehydration
Moderate blood loss resulting in shock

Increase in contractility of the heart muscle

An increase in contractility of the heart muscle would increase stroke volume and cardiac output, which would cause increased tissue perfusion.


A 60-year-old female presents in respiratory distress. She is AOx4, breathing at 22 breaths per minute. You note adequate and bilateral chest expansion with clear breath sounds. What is the most appropriate method of airway management?
Oxygen via NRB
NPA with assisted ventilations
NPA with supplemental oxygen
A nasal cannula at 2-6 L per minute

A nasal cannula at 2-6 L per minute


A reduced tidal volume would most likely occur from?
Nostril flaring
Accessory muscle use
Unequal chest expansion
Increased minute volume

Unequal chest expansion


Your patient is a 21-year-old male involved in a skiing accident. Bystanders tell you he lost control while skiing and crashed into a ski lift pole. After a thorough physical examination, you determine he is breathing adequately. All of the following are signs of adequate breathing EXCEPT?
Normal rate and depth
A regular pattern of inspiration and expiration
Audible breath sounds on both sides of the chest
Asymmetrical rise and fall on both sides of the chest

Asymmetrical rise and fall on both sides of the chest

Asymmetrical means the rise and fall of the patient's chest is uneven on both sides. An equal rise and fall on both sides of the chest is a sign of adequate breathing.


In an unresponsive patient who has not sustained trauma, how are respirations of 16 breaths per minute with good chest expansion most appropriately managed?
Suctioning and ventilations with a BVM
The jaw-thrust maneuver and frequent suctioning
An airway adjunct and oxygen via NRB
An airway adjunct and ventilations with a BVM

An airway adjunct and oxygen via NRB


Which breathing pattern is characterized as having an irregular pattern, rate, and depth with intermittent patterns of apnea?


Biot respirations may indicate severe brain injury or brain stem herniation.


Your partner says the patient is exhibiting paradoxical chest wall movement. This is best defined as?
The opposite of the chest wall during inspiration and expiration
Hives that are causing respiratory compromise
Parallel movement of the chest on inspiration
Perpendicular chest wall movement during expiration

The opposite of the chest wall during inspiration and expiration


Which strap should be applied second when placing a Sager traction splint?
The distal strap
The ischial strap
The knee strap
The waist strap

The distal strap

The distal strap (ankle strap) should always be applied after the ischial strap to check for proper positioning of the device. You're going to see this time and time again, but make sure you check CMS before and after you apply the traction splint!


Blunt trauma injuries will most frequently involve the liver and which other abdominal organ?
Small intestine
Gall bladder


This is due simply to the location and size of the spleen.


Your patient was involved in a MVC. Your patient's vitals are as follows: BP 196/124, Pulse 52, irregular respiratory pattern. Based on the vital signs, what do you suspect?
Hypovolemic shock
Head Injury
Cardiogenic Shock

Head Injury

These vital signs resemble Cushing's triad which is indicative of a head injury. Cushing's triad includes hypertension, bradycardia and irregular respirations. You would see a low BP and increased HR in a patient with hypovolemic shock.