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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (26)
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1

Direct signalling involves?

Gap junctions

2

Indirect signalling involves?

chemical messengers

3

Functional classifications of chemical messengers?

Paracrines, autocrines, hormones, cytokines, neurohormones, neurotransmitters

4

Chemical structure determines mechanisms of..?

synthesis, release, transport, signal transduction

5

Hydrophobic/lipophilic chemical messengers?

Steroids (androgens, oestrogens) & eicosanoids (PGE's)

6

Hydrophilic/lipophobic chemical messengers?

AA derivatives (biogenic amines), proteins (peptides), AA's

7

What are the 4 types of receptors?

ligand-gated ion channel, receptor-enzyme, G-protein-coupled receptor, intracellular receptor

8

Define antagonistic hormone interaction

hormones oppose each other

9

Define synergistic hormone interaction

effect is additive

10

Define permissive hormone interaction

one hormone needed for other to produce an effect eg. adrenaline + thyroid hormone

11

Define intergrative hormone interaction

additive (same response via different signalling)

12

Primary organs that secrete hormones?

hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, pancreas, gonads, adrenal

13

Secondary organs that secrete hormones?

Heart, liver, stomach, SI, skin, kidneys

14

What are the 6 hormones produced by the anterior pituitary and where do they act?

TSH (thyroid), PRL (mammary gland), ACTH (adrenal gland), GH (adipose, muscle, bone), FSH & LH (gonads), MSH (melanocytes)

15

Give examples of pulsatile, circadian and episodic hormones

LH, melatonin, prolactin

16

Give examples of posterior pituitary hormones and where they act

vasopressin/ADH (kidneys & arterioles - vasoconstriction), oxytocin (uterus - contractions & mammary glands - milk production)

17

What are the regions of the adrenal gland?

Cortex (zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis) & medulla (adrenal medulla)

18

Which types of hormones are released by the adrenal cortex?

Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), Glucocorticoids (cortisol), & sex hormones (androgens)

19

Which types of hormones are released by the adrenal medulla?

Catecholamines (adrenaline & NA)

20

Actions of mineralocorticoid; aldosterone and where it acts?

Long term electrolyte & BP homeostasis. Action in kidneys to retain H2O & Na -> increase ECF -> blood volume -> BP

21

Actions of glucocorticoid; cortisol and where it acts?

Increases glucose & AA's in blood, adipose (increase lipolysis), muscles & other tissue (protein catabolism), liver (gluconeogenesis)

22

Actions of catecholamine; adrenaline and where it acts?

Increase HR, contractility, BP (heart), dilation of pupils & airways (eyes & lungs), lipolysis (adipose), gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis (liver)

23

Actions of insulin & sites of action?

glucose uptake, storage as glycogen & triglycerides, decrease blood glucose, FA's, AA's, protein synthesis, increase fuel storage

24

Actions of glucagon & sites of action?

glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketone synthesis, protein breakdown (liver), lipolysis (adipose)

25

2 thyroid hormones and their actions?

T3 & T4 (3 or 4 iodine molecules) - increase MBR, decreases body weight, increase cardiac output, increased resp depth & rate, increased growth & CNS dev., influences skin & hair growth

26

Somatotropin (growth hormone) actions and sites of action?

Liver -> IGF-1 -> increased cell division, protein synthesis, bone growth. Adipose/muscle/liver incease fat catabolism/decrease glucose uptake/ increase glucose output.