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Flashcards in Skeletal system Deck (51)
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1

5 functions of bones?

Support
Protection
Movement
Storage
RBC production

2

What is the axial skeleton? Name them.

Bones on or attached to midline of the body
Skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs

3

Vertebral regions..?

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Caudal

4

What is the appendicular skeleton?

Bones of the front & hind limbs + pectoral & pelvic girdle

5

Name the front (thoracic) limbs

Thoracic girdle, brachium, antebrachium, carpus, metacarpus, phalanges

6

Name the hind (pelvic) limbs

Pelvic girdle, thigh, crus, tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges (digit)

7

Define compact bone

hard layer covering most bones (covers most of shaft on long bones) - cortex

8

Define cancellous bone

Spongy bone - composed of spicules forming porous network (inside long bone)

9

Define medullary cavity

Space filled with marrow
Red marrow in young animals
Yellow (fatty) marrow as animal ages

10

Define epiphysis

Either end of long bone (proximal/distal)

11

Define diaphysis

Cylindrical shaft between two epiphyses (in long bone)

12

Define metaphysis

In mature bone - flared area adjacent to epiphysis (widest part of bone)

13

Define epiphyseal cartilage/disk/plate

Layer of hyaline cartilage separating epiphysis & diaphysis in immature bone

14

Define articular

Relating to joints

15

Define articular cartilage

Thin hyaline layer covering articular surface of bone - reduces friction

16

Define periosteum

fibrous membrane covering surface of bone except where articular cartilage is

17

Define endosteum

Tough, fibrous membrane lining marrow cavity & osteonal canals of bone

18

What does compact bone surround?

Cortex surrounding marrow

19

Bones can receive how much blood supply?

Up to 10% CO

20

Nerves in bone do what?

Influence blood vessels & sensory

21

Properties of osteocytes

Maintain protein & mineral content of matrix & involved in bone repair
Can not divide

22

Properties of osteoblasts

Increase [calcium phosphate] -> Ca deposition -> bone growth

23

Properties of osteoclasts

Breakdown of bone
Important in Ca & PO4 (phosphate) regulation

24

Define endochondral

When bone replaces cartilaginous model (long bone)

25

Define intramembranous

Develops in connective tissue without connective bone (flat bones of skull)

26

Define ossification

Process of laying down new bone by osteoblasts

27

Describe steps in bone growth & dev...

1. Formation of collar around hyaline cartilage model
2. Cavitation of hyaline cartilage
3. Invasion of internal cavities by periosteal bud, blood vessels & spongy bone formation.
4. Formation of medullary cavity. Appearance of secondary ossification centres in epiphyses
5. Ossification of epiphyses. When complete -> hyaline cartilage remains only in epiphyseal plates, and articular cartilages.

28

Role of epiphyseal plates?

promote longitudinal growth until young adulthood

29

Describe long bone growth...

1. Chondrocytes produce new cartilage in epiphyseal plate
2. Epiphyseal plate widens -> bone lengthens
3. Chondrocytes die
4. Osteoblasts replace chondrocytes & lay down bone
5. Epiphyseal plate closure (puberty, hormone-regulated, no further increase in length)

30

Rate of bone growth determined by...?

Matrix prod.
hypertrophic chondrocytes enlargement
proliferative kinetics

31

Hormones & growth factors involved in bone growth?

GH (somatotropin)
Sex hormones (oestrogen/testosterone)
Thyroxine
Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs)

32

Bone remodelling involves...?

organic & mineral continuously recycled & renewed
calcium homeostasis
constant diet source of Ca & PO4 (phosphate) salts
Hormones (calcitriol, calcitonin, PTH)

33

3 major hormones involved with bone remodelling?

1. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3)
2. Calcitonin
3. PTH

34

Role of calcitriol?

kidneys -> Ca & PO4 absorption -> ++ blood [Ca]

35

Role of calcitonin?

From thyroid -> kidney -> Ca & PO4 homeostasis -> decreases blood [Ca] by inhibiting osteoclast activity & excretion from kidney

36

Role of PTH?

Ca & PO4 homeostasis -> stimulate osteoclast activity + increased absorption of Ca + decrease Ca excretion (kidney)

37

Describe steps in bone fractures...?

1. broken bone -> ruptured blood vessels -> haematoma
2. New capillaries grow -> nutrition, growth factors, phagocytes. Connective tissue -> fibrocartilaginous callus formation
3. More bone cells recruited to area -> spongy bone -> bony callus formation
4. Remodelling of bony callus -> healed fracture

38

Articular cartilage properties...?

formed at joints
no sensory nerves
no blood supply (nutrients by diffusion)

39

Define fontanel...

soft connective tissue on infant skulls to aid in child birth

40

Define sutures...?

immovable fibrous joints that connect cranium bones together

41

Define synchondroses

immovable

42

Define symphyses...?

fibrocartilage between bone

43

Synovial joints contain...?

periosteum, ligament, joint cavity (synovial fluid), articular (hyaline) cartilage, fibrous capsule, synovial membrane

44

Different types of synovial joints & one eg. of each...?

Gliding/Plane - vertebrocostal (hoolahoop action)
Hinge - elbow, knee
Pivot - atlas, axis
Ellipsoidal - radiocarpal
Saddle - 1st carpometacarpal (thumb)
Ball & socket - hip, shoulder

45

Define circumduction

moving arm in loop

46

Define pronation

turning dorsal palm up

47

Define supination

turning palm up

48

Ligaments & their role...?

Bone to bone
support synovial joints

49

Name some joint problems & eg's...?

Bursitis - inflamm. of synovial membrane sac
Dislocation/luxation - bone forced out of normal position
Sprain - Damage or tear to ligaments/tendons
Arthritis - inflamm. or degenerative disease damaging joints
Acute arthritis - bacterial invasion (treat with AB's)

50

Osteoarthritis...?

Degenerative condition in older animals
Spurs of bone develop

51

Rheumatoid arthritis...?

chronic inflamm. disorder -> immune sys attempts to destroy joints