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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (24):
1

Major components of endocrine system

Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland (3 lobes)
Pineal gland
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Thymus
Heart atria
Liver
Pancreas
Adrenal glands
Kidneys
Gonads
Skin

2

Hypothalamus

Mnemonic: SaD - antagonistic to AP
-Somatostatin; GH-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
-antagonistic
-Dopamine (DA)

Releasing hormones (4):
-Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
-Corticotropic-releasing hormone (CHR)
-Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
-Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

Neuronsecretory via neurohypophysis:
-oxytocin (OXT)
-vasopressin (AVP); anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

3

Pituitary (hypophysis) lobes

Adenohypophysis (anterior pit.)
Pars Intermedia (intermediate pit.)
Neurohypophysis (posterior pit.)

4

Anterior pituitary
(adenohypophysis)

Mnemonic: FLAT PeG

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
luteinizing hormone (LH)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
prolactin
β-endorphin
growth hormone (GH)

5

Intermediate pituitary
(pars intermedia)

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

6

Posterior pituitary
(neurohypophysis)

oxytocin (OXT)
vasopressin (AVP)
-aka anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

Neurosecretory neurons from hypothalamus traverse into neurohyposhysis where OXT and AVP/ADH are stored and secreted.

7

Pineal gland

melatonin

8

Thyroid

triiodothyronine (T3)
tetraiodothyronine (T4)
calcitonin

9

Parathyroid

parathyroid hormone (PTH)
-aka parathormone

10

Thymus

thymosin
thymopoietin

11

Heart

Atrial cardiac myocytes:
-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
-brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

Atrial baroreceptors sense low BP:
-signals hypothalamus -> ADH
-signals juxtaglomerular cells -> renin

12

Liver

angiotensinogen
insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
thrombopoietin (THPO)

13

Pancreas

insulin
glucagon
somatostatin
ghrelin
amylin
pancreatic polypeptide

14

Adrenal glands (divisions)

cortex
medulla

15

Adrenal cortex

mineralocorticoids
glucocorticoids
gonadocorticoids

16

Adrenal medulla

epinephrine (adrenaline)
norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

17

Kidney

renin enzyme
erythropoietin (EPO)
calcitriol
thrombopoietin (THPO)

18

Female reproductive system

Ovaries
Uterus (when pregnant)
Placenta (when pregnant)

19

Ovaries

progesterone
estrogens
androstenedione
inhibin

20

Uterus (when pregnant)

prolactin
relaxin

21

Placenta (when pregnant)

progesterone
estrogens
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
human placental lactogen
activins
inhibin

22

Testes

testosterone
other androgens

23

Skin

calcidiol

24

3 main classes of hormones

Steroids hormones
Peptide/protein hormones
Amine hormones