Endocrine Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Drugs Deck (21):
1

Lispro, Aspart, Glulisine

Fast acting insulins
can cause hypoglycemia (dose related)
rare allergic reactions

2

NPH

intermediate acting insulin

3

Glargine, detemir

long acting insulins
used for 'basal' glucose control

4

Metformin

exact mechanism unknown, though thought to increase insulin sensitivity
oral only, first line in T2DM
tox: GI upset, super scary effect is (anion gap) lactic acidosis, and is contraindicated in renal failure

5

Sulfonylureas, General

close the K+ channel on the beta-cell membrane, depolarizing the cell and causing insulin release
these are USELESS in T1DM

6

Tolbutamide, chlorpropamide

First Generation SUs
tox: risk of hypoglycemia, disulfiram like effect

7

Glyburide, glimepiride, glipizide

Second Generation SUs
tox: risk of hypoglycemic

8

Glitazones, TZDs

increase insulin sensitivity by activating PPAR-gamma (a transcription factor)
tox: weight gain, edema, hepatotoxicity, heart failure

9

Acarbose, miglitol

inhibit intestinal alpha-glucosidase leading to decreased sugar absorption
tox: GI upset

10

Pramlintide

amylin analog: decreases gastric emptying, decreases glucagon
used in T1 and T2DM
tox: hypoglycemia, nausea, diarrhea

11

Exenatide, Liraglutide

GLP-1 analogs
increase insulin, decrease glucagon
used only in T2DM
tox: nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis

12

-gliptins

DPP-4 inhibitors
increase insulin, decrease glucagon
used only in T2DM
tox: mild urinary or respiratory infections

13

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

blocks thyroid peroxidase AND 5'-deiodinase, thus inhibiting oxidation and organification of iodine AND blocking T4 -> T3
used in hyperthyroid
SAFE in preggo
tox: rash, rare agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity

14

Methimazole

blocks thyroid peroxidase thus inhibiting oxidation and organification of iodine
used in hyperthyroid
CONTRAINDICATED in preggo
tox: rash, agranulocytosis, teratogenic effect

15

Levothyroxine, triidodothyronine

thyroxine replacement in hypothyroid
tox: tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors, arrhythmias (basically symptoms of hyperthyroid)

16

Human Growth Hormone

GH replacement
used in GH deficiency, Turner's

17

Somatostatin (octreotide)

blocks GH
used in acromegaly, carcinoid syndrome, gastrinoma, glucagonomas, and bleeding esophageal varices

18

Oxytocin

stimulates labor, uterine contractions, milk let-down; controls uterine hemorrhage

19

ADH (DDAVP)

Given in CENTRAL DI, not in nephrogenic DI

20

Demeclocycline

ADH antagonist
used in SIADH
tox: can cause nephrogenic DI, photosensitivity, bone and teeth abnormalities (like others in tetracycline family)

21

Toxicity of glucocorticoids

iantrogenic Cushing's
adrenal insufficiency when abruptly stopped