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Flashcards in endocrine glands Deck (65)
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1

what is the function of the hypothalamus?

- thermoregulation
- hormone secretion (primary and trophic)
- regulate circadian rhythm
- regulate motivation
- regulate emotion

2

what is a primary hormone?

one that acts directly on organ to produce effect

3

what is a trophic hormone?

trigger an other gland to produce a hormone

4

what happens to our body temp when we sleep?

decreases

5

the hypothalamus releases releasing hormones, where do these hormones pass to and what effect do they have?

pass to anterior pituitary triggering secretion of hormones from anterior pituitary

6

how do hormones passing from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary travel ?

via blood vessels

7

how do hormones passing from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary travel ?

along nerve axons

8

name the hypothalamic hormones?

- corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
- gonadotrophin releasing hormone (CRH)
- thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
- growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
- somatostatin (SS) (GH inhibiting hormone)
- prolactin releasing hormone (PLRH)
- dopamine (DA) (PLIH)

9

name the anterior pituitary hormones?

- adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
- luteinising hormone (LH)
- thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
- growth hormone (GH)
- prolactin (PL)

10

name the posterior pituitary hormones?

- antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
- oxytocin

11

where are posterior pituitary hormones produced and how do they reach the posterior pituitary?

produced in hypothalamus and pass along axons to posterior pituitary

12

where is the thyroid gland?

in neck anterior to trachea

13

what hormones does the thyroid gland produce?

- thyroid hormone
- T3, T4
- calcitonin

14

which cells in the thyroid gland produce calcitonin?

para-follicular C-cells

15

what is T4 more commonly known as?

thyroxine

16

what hormone is the precursor for T3?

T4

17

which is more potent, T3 or T4?

T3

18

what are the actions of the thyroid gland?

- increase metabolic rate
- determine basal metabolic rate
- essential for normal feral and childhood growth
- up regulation of adrenoreceptors

19

which thyroid hormone regulates calcium levels?

calcitonin

20

name a disorder characterised by under secretion of the thyroid?

hypothyroidism

21

name a disorder characterised by over secretion of the thyroid?

hyperthyroidism (goitre, exophthalmos)

22

what dietary defficiency causes goitre?

iodine

23

what physical symptom does goitre produce?

thyroid swelling

24

what physical symptoms does exophthalmos produce?

bulging eyes

25

what hormone does the parathyroid gland produce?

parathyroid hormone

26

what is the function of parathyroid hormone?

regulate blood calcium levels

27

what are the endocrine cells of the pancreas called?

islets of langerhans

28

name the 3 islets of langerhans and the secretion they produce

beta cell - insulin
alpha cell - glusgon
delta cell - somatostatin

29

what percentage of pancreatic tissue do islets of langerhans occupy?

1-2%

30

insulin is released in response to what?

raised blood glucose