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Flashcards in intro to endocrine system Deck (26)
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1

describe endocrine transmission?

chemicals are secreted into the bloodstream then sent to parts of the body

2

give examples of some endocrine glands

hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, endocrine cells in GI, gonodads, placenta, pineal gland, thymus

3

what are the 2 classifications of hormones?

- steroids
- non-steroids

4

steroid hormones are based on which type of structure?

cholesterol ring structure

5

give examples of steroid hormones?

- cortisol
- aldosterone
- testorsterone
- progesterone
- oestrogen

6

non-steroid hormones can be subdivide into 3 classes, what are these ?

- amino acid dervatives
- peptides
- glycoproteins

7

give examples of non-steroidal amino acid derivatives (amines)

- adrenaline
- noradrenaline
- melatonin
- thyroxine

8

give examples of short chain peptide hormones?

- ADH
- ANH
- ocytocin
- somatostatin
- melanocyte stimulating hormone

9

give examples of long chain peptide hormones (proteins)?

- growth hormone
- prolactin
- parathyroid hormone
- calcitonin
- insulin
- glucagon

10

describe the structure of a non-steroidal glycoprotein hormone

carbohydrate group attached to amino acid

11

give examples of non-steroidal glycoprotein hormones

- FSH
- LH
- thyroid stimulating hormone
- gonadotrophin

12

what are pro-hormones?

peptide hormones produced in inactive precursor form

13

where are pro-hormones packaged and converted to active hormones?

golgi apparatus

14

which word describes a hormone which has effect only in the vicinity of the gland secreting it?

paracrine

15

give examples of paracrine hormones (local tissue hormones)?

- prostaglandins
- leukotrienes
- thromoxanes

16

which class of hormones act via 2nd messenger systems?

non-steroidal hormones

17

name 2 common 2nd messenger systems?

- cAMP
- calcium

18

which feature of steroid hormones allow them to pass through the cell membrane to reach intracellular receptors?

they are lipophilic

19

what type of feedback are most hormone systems regulated by?

negative feedback

20

how does negative feedback work?

some function of output mechanism is fed back in order to reduce output

21

what is excess hormone secretion known as?

hypersecretion

22

what is decreased hormone secretion known as?

hyposecretion

23

what does up regulation refer to?

- increase in sensitivity
- more receptors

24

what does down regulation refer to?

- decrease in sensitivity
- fewer receptors

25

what condition is up regulation of hormones associated with?

hyper secretion

26

what condition is down regulation of hormones associated with?

hypo secretion