Flashcards in intro to endocrine system Deck (26)
describe endocrine transmission?
chemicals are secreted into the bloodstream then sent to parts of the body
give examples of some endocrine glands
hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, endocrine cells in GI, gonodads, placenta, pineal gland, thymus
what are the 2 classifications of hormones?
steroid hormones are based on which type of structure?
cholesterol ring structure
give examples of steroid hormones?
non-steroid hormones can be subdivide into 3 classes, what are these ?
- amino acid dervatives
give examples of non-steroidal amino acid derivatives (amines)
give examples of short chain peptide hormones?
- melanocyte stimulating hormone
give examples of long chain peptide hormones (proteins)?
- growth hormone
- parathyroid hormone
describe the structure of a non-steroidal glycoprotein hormone
carbohydrate group attached to amino acid
give examples of non-steroidal glycoprotein hormones
- thyroid stimulating hormone
what are pro-hormones?
peptide hormones produced in inactive precursor form
where are pro-hormones packaged and converted to active hormones?
which word describes a hormone which has effect only in the vicinity of the gland secreting it?
give examples of paracrine hormones (local tissue hormones)?
which class of hormones act via 2nd messenger systems?
name 2 common 2nd messenger systems?
which feature of steroid hormones allow them to pass through the cell membrane to reach intracellular receptors?
they are lipophilic
what type of feedback are most hormone systems regulated by?
how does negative feedback work?
some function of output mechanism is fed back in order to reduce output
what is excess hormone secretion known as?
what is decreased hormone secretion known as?
what does up regulation refer to?
- increase in sensitivity
- more receptors
what does down regulation refer to?
- decrease in sensitivity
- fewer receptors
what condition is up regulation of hormones associated with?