haemostasis, hemorrage and shock Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in haemostasis, hemorrage and shock Deck (47)
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1

what effect does a decrease in blood vol have on BP and delivery of nutrients to cells?

decreased BP and delivery

2

what causes shock?

lack of blood flow to tissues

3

what are the effects of shock?

decreased BP and delivery of nutrient to cells

4

what are the 4 physiological responses to blood loss?

immediate - stop bleeding
short term - restore BP
medium term - restore fluid vol
long term - replace blood constituents

5

the immediate response to shock is to stop blood flow, what is this called?

hemostasis

6

what responses are involved in hemostasis?

- vascular response
- platelet response
- plasma response (coagulation)

7

what role does smooth muscle play in the vascular response go hemostasis?

vascular spasms - vasoconstriction

8

what role does endothelium play in the vascular response go hemostasis?

- platelet adhesion and aggregation
- anticlotting and fibrinolysis

9

describe the platelet response in Hemostasis

- damage to BV causes turbulent blood flow, platelets come into contact with collagen vessel wall
- platelets clump together (aggregation) forming platelet plug

10

during hemostatic coagulation, plasma proteins and tissue components combine to convert what into what?

fibrinogen into fibrin

11

which fibrous molecule forms a blood clot?

fibrin

12

where are the majority of clotting factors made?

liver

13

synthesis of several clotting factors requires which vitamin?

vit k

14

describe the enzyme cascade that results in the production of insoluble fibrin

- prothrombin is converted to thrombin in the presence of factor Xa, Ca, factor V and phospholipid
- prothrombin converts fibrinogen to soluble fibrin
- soluble fibrin is converted to insoluble fibrin by factor XIIIa

15

what is bloodclotting factor I?

fibrinogen

16

what is bloodclotting factor II?

prothrombin

17

what is bloodclotting factor III?

tissue factor (thromboplastin)

18

what is bloodclotting factor IV?

calcium

19

how many bloodclotting factors are there?

12

20

both the extrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways work on factor X to form what?

factor Xa

21

what activates the intrinsic coagulation pathway?

- vascular damage

22

what activates the extrinsic coagulation pathway?

- tissue damage

23

what factors does the intrinsic coagulation pathway involve ?

factors VIII, IX, XI, XII

24

what factor does the extrinsic coagulation pathway involve ?

factor VII

25

both coagulation pathways work in the presence of what?

calcium and phospholipid

26

which coagulation pathway is more important in initiated the clot after injury ?

extrinsic

27

which coagulation pathway is more important at maintaining the blood clot once it has started ?

intrinsic

28

which coagulation pathway has a role in thrombosis?

intrinsic

29

after the blood clot has served its function it dissolves, what is this known as?

fibrinolysis

30

what is fibrinolysis?

after the blood clot has served its function it dissolves