Endocrine Histology Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Endocrine Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Histology Deck (32):
1

What are major endocrine glands? (5)

Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas

2

Common features of endocrine tissues (6)

Ductless, vascular, organization (blocks/plates/cords), epithelial, polyhedral, numerous organelles

3

What is special about endothelium in endocrine tissue? Why is that way?

Fenestrated endothelium in endocrine tissue allows for easy diffusion of large molecules

4

Patterns of endocrine cells (4)

Epithelial, mesenchymal, neural, individual cells

5

What areas have epithelial growth pattern?

Thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal cortex, anterior pituitary

6

Which epithelial endocrine tissue is not derived from ectoderm or endoderm?

Adrenal cortex is mesoderm derived

7

Mesenchymal Pattern Endocrine cells:

Lydia cells and ovarian storm
Granulosa/luteal cells

8

Neural Pattern Endocrine Cells (2): Location

Posterior pituitary
Adrenal medulla

9

Individual Cell Pattern: (3)

GI tract (gastrin/somatostatin producing)
Throughout body
Renal cortex (renin producing)

10

Portions of Pituitary Gland

Anterior: ectoderm of oropharynx
Posterior: neuroectoderm of floor of 3rd ventricle

11

Anterior Pituitary: Function and hormones secreted

Master gland: Regulates most endocrine glands

GH, prolactin, LH, FSH, TSH, ACTH

12

Regulation of Ant Pituitary

Hypothalamic neurons

13

Posterior pituitary secretions (2)

Oxytocin and ADH

14

Pituitary Cell Types in Pars Distalis: Acidophils (2)

Appear more pink

Somatotropes: produce GH (50%)
Lactotropes: produce PRL (10-20%)

15

Cell Types in Pars Distalis: Basophils (3)

Appear more purple

Corticotropes: produce ACTH (15-20%)
Gonadotropes: produce LH/FSH (10%)
Thyrotropes: produce TSH (5%)

16

Cell Types in Pars DIstalis: Chromophobes

Will not have color appearing; no granules
Exhausted/dying cells?

17

Pars Nevosa: What are pituicytes?

Unmyelinated nerve axons and supporting cells
Cell bodies lie in hypothalamus

18

What hormones are produced in pars nervosa?

ADH, oxytocin

19

What are herring bodies?

Terminal end of axons that store ADH/oxytocin

20

What is unique about thyroid?

Extracellular storage of thyroglobulin accumulates in follicles-- this is unlike other endocrine organs

21

Thyroid: Function of follicular cells in thyroid?

Store thyroglobulin in follicles
Secrete T3 (thyroxin), T4

22

Thyroid: Function of parafollicular cells (C cells)

Produce calcitonin
Found between follicles

23

Parathyroid glands: how many? where? function?

Usually 4
Located near thymus
Function: Regulate calcium metabolism

24

Histology of Parathyroid gland: Cell types (3)

Chief cells: Secrete PTH
Oxphil cells: Large/acidophilic
Adipocytes: increasing fat with age

25

Parts of Adrenal Gland (2)

Cortex (90%)
Medulla: neuron-like; secrete catecholamines

26

Adrenal Cortex Zones and Function

From out-in:
Zona Glomerulosa: minealocorticoids (aldosterone)
Zona fasciculata: glucocorticoids (cortisol)
Zona reticularis: gonadotropins (androgenic steroids)

27

Zona Glomerulosa (15%)

Makes aldosterone
Closely packed clusters

28

Zona fasciculata (80%)

Secretes glucocorticoids
Long cords separated by capillaries
Small nuclei
Lipid droplets containing steroid precursors

29

Zona reticularis (5-7%)

Secretes androgenizing steroids (DHEA)

30

Adrenal medulla cells: Types

Chromaffin cells: postsynaptic neurons without axons
Large dense core vesicles: secrete NE
Small less dense core vesicles: secrete epinephrine

31

Islets make up ____% of pancreatic volume

1-2

32

Cell types of Islets (4)

A
ß

PP