Endocrine, Nutrition and GI Pathologies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine, Nutrition and GI Pathologies Deck (61)
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1

Gigantism vs Acromegaly

Gigantism: excess GH <18 yrs, pituitary adenoma, overgrowth of tissues in body (large hands, protruding jaw), headache, visual disturbance
Acromegaly: excess GH >growth plates closed, protruding jaw, large spatulae hands, large feet, headache, visual disturbance

2

Cushing's Disease vs Syndrome

Disease: excess ACTH, from functioning pituitary adenoma, excess cortisol --> moon-face, buffalo hump, truncal obesity, HTN, purple striae, hyperpigmented sin creases, muscle wasting in extremities (recurrent infxn)
Syndrome: exogenous stroids or tumor, truncal obesity, moon face, buffalo hump, HTN, HYPERGLYCEMIA, poor wound healing, purple striae, NO HYPERPIGMENTATION

3

GH deficiency in children? Symptoms?

Pituitary dwarfism
growth retardation (non-functioning pituitary tumor)

4

Ischemic necrosis of anterior pituitary lobe? Cause? S/S?

Sheehan's syndrome
Severe postpartum hemorrhage
Amenorrhea, cessation of lactation, loss of axillary/pubic hair

5

Hyperprolactinemia cause and S/S

Secreting prolactin pituitary adenoma
Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, infertility

6

ADH deficiency from head injury, pituitary tumors, kidney disease, sarcoidosis and S/S?

Diabetes insipidus
polyuria, polydypsia, SpG urine <1.010 (despite hydration)

7

Hypothyroidism in adults vs infants
1o?
2o?
Reidel's?

Myxeedema and cretinism
1o: Low T3/4 HIGH TSH, fatigue, constipation, brittle hair, slow to relax reflexes, weight gain
like in Hashimoto's (anti-thyroglobulin Ab and goiter)
2o: low T3/4 and TSH, pituitary hypofunctioning
Reidel's: lymphocytic fibrotic thyroid disease leading to hypothyroidism

8

Hyperthyroidism:
1o? Graves? Plummer's?
2o?

1o: elevated T3/4 LOW TSH
Graves: MC, IgG ab bind to TSH receptors, exopthalmos, goiter, fine tremors of hands, nervous, diarrhea, weight los (increased appetite) HLA-B8
Plummer: toxic multinodular goiter, no exopthalmos
2o: inc T3/4 TSH - TSH secreting pituitary tumor

9

Hyper vs hypoparathyroidism:

Hyper: functioning parathyroid adenoma, hypercalcemia, acro-osteolysis, brown bone cysts (decomposed blood and hemosiderin)
Hypo: incidental removal of parathyroid,hypocalcemia, tetany and muscle twitching, Chvostek test + (tap facial N by ear)

10

Autoimmune or TB related chronic underfunctioning of adrenal cortex - S/S

Addison's disease
low cortisol/aldosterone, hyperpigmented skin creases, bronze skin, low Na, BP but high K and ACTH

11

Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome - cause and S/S?

acute adrenal bleeding, 2o to N. meningitidis septicemia
Shock, hemorrhagic rash

12

Overfunctioning of zona glomerulosa results in? Due to? S/S?

Conn's disease
Adrenal adenoma, excess mineralocorticoids
low potassium, renin, metabolic alkalosis, high BP

13

Deficiency in 21-hydroxylase enzyme leads to?

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia/Adrenogenital syndrome
Excess androgen production, virilization of female infant

14

Neuroblastoma and oncogene

MC adrenal medulla tumor in kids, M-MYC oncogene

15

Diabetes Type I vs II all you can list... GO!

I: insulin dependent, beta cell destruction, Ab to beta cells of pancreas, weight loss, Diabetic Ketoacoidosis, children, teens, HLA-DR34
II: non-insulin dependent, insulin receptor insensitivtiy, insulin levels elevated, obese adults, fm hx, polyuria, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (dehydration), advanced glycated end products, narrowing of small/med sized vessels, damage vasa vasora and nervosa, premature cataracts and retinopathy related to acc of sorbitol

16

Mature Onset Diabetes in the Young

Non-insulin dependent, no islet cell ab, not obese, <25

17

Gestational diabetes

3-10% all pregnancies, resolves w/end of pregnancy, 50% develop T2DM w/in 15 yrs

18

Carcinoid syndrome what cells? S/S?

Neuroendocrine in gut
recurrent diarrhea, cutaneous flushing, bronchial wheezing
(1/3 mets, 1/3 multiple)

19

Insulinoma. Relieved by?

Pancreatic beta-islet cell tumor
Hypoglycemia relieved by food

20

Gastrinoma cause, S/S?

excess gastrin from GI tumor
Recurrent peptic ulcer disease (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)
Part of MEN type I

21

MEN Type 1
2a? 2b?

1: Wermer's syndrome, pituitary adenoma, parathyroid adenoma, pancreas adenoma
2a: Sipple's syndrome: medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, parathyroid hyperplasia
2b: Marfanoid ft, medullary thyroid CA, mucosal neuromas, pheochromocytoma

22

Failure of lower esophageal sphincter to relax; loss of ganglion cells (myenteric plexus)

Achalasia - mainly dysphagia for liquids

23

Hiatal hernia

stomach into chest through diaphragm

24

Dilated V in lower esophagus (portal HTN)

Esophageal varices

25

GERD

chronic inflammation of lower esophagus due to acid regurgitation

26

Premalignant metaplastic change of lower esophagus due to GERD

Barrett's esophagus

27

Mallory-Weiss Syndrome

linear tear in lower esophagus due to protracted vomiting and retching

28

Peptic ulcer disease
Gastric vs Duodenal ulcer

H. Pylori (lesser curvature, duodenum)
Inc pain w/meals for gastric
Dec pain w/meals for duodenal

29

Projectile vomiting in young male infants (<6 wks)

Congenital pyloric stenosis (hypertrophic pyloric sphincter)

30

Atrophic Gastritis

H. Pylori infxn; predisposition to pernicious anemia and stomach cancer