Flashcards in Endocrine, Nutrition and GI Pathologies Deck (61)
Gigantism vs Acromegaly
Gigantism: excess GH <18 yrs, pituitary adenoma, overgrowth of tissues in body (large hands, protruding jaw), headache, visual disturbance
Acromegaly: excess GH >growth plates closed, protruding jaw, large spatulae hands, large feet, headache, visual disturbance
Cushing's Disease vs Syndrome
Disease: excess ACTH, from functioning pituitary adenoma, excess cortisol --> moon-face, buffalo hump, truncal obesity, HTN, purple striae, hyperpigmented sin creases, muscle wasting in extremities (recurrent infxn)
Syndrome: exogenous stroids or tumor, truncal obesity, moon face, buffalo hump, HTN, HYPERGLYCEMIA, poor wound healing, purple striae, NO HYPERPIGMENTATION
GH deficiency in children? Symptoms?
growth retardation (non-functioning pituitary tumor)
Ischemic necrosis of anterior pituitary lobe? Cause? S/S?
Severe postpartum hemorrhage
Amenorrhea, cessation of lactation, loss of axillary/pubic hair
Hyperprolactinemia cause and S/S
Secreting prolactin pituitary adenoma
Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, infertility
ADH deficiency from head injury, pituitary tumors, kidney disease, sarcoidosis and S/S?
polyuria, polydypsia, SpG urine <1.010 (despite hydration)
Hypothyroidism in adults vs infants
Myxeedema and cretinism
1o: Low T3/4 HIGH TSH, fatigue, constipation, brittle hair, slow to relax reflexes, weight gain
like in Hashimoto's (anti-thyroglobulin Ab and goiter)
2o: low T3/4 and TSH, pituitary hypofunctioning
Reidel's: lymphocytic fibrotic thyroid disease leading to hypothyroidism
1o? Graves? Plummer's?
1o: elevated T3/4 LOW TSH
Graves: MC, IgG ab bind to TSH receptors, exopthalmos, goiter, fine tremors of hands, nervous, diarrhea, weight los (increased appetite) HLA-B8
Plummer: toxic multinodular goiter, no exopthalmos
2o: inc T3/4 TSH - TSH secreting pituitary tumor
Hyper vs hypoparathyroidism:
Hyper: functioning parathyroid adenoma, hypercalcemia, acro-osteolysis, brown bone cysts (decomposed blood and hemosiderin)
Hypo: incidental removal of parathyroid,hypocalcemia, tetany and muscle twitching, Chvostek test + (tap facial N by ear)
Autoimmune or TB related chronic underfunctioning of adrenal cortex - S/S
low cortisol/aldosterone, hyperpigmented skin creases, bronze skin, low Na, BP but high K and ACTH
Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome - cause and S/S?
acute adrenal bleeding, 2o to N. meningitidis septicemia
Shock, hemorrhagic rash
Overfunctioning of zona glomerulosa results in? Due to? S/S?
Adrenal adenoma, excess mineralocorticoids
low potassium, renin, metabolic alkalosis, high BP
Deficiency in 21-hydroxylase enzyme leads to?
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia/Adrenogenital syndrome
Excess androgen production, virilization of female infant
Neuroblastoma and oncogene
MC adrenal medulla tumor in kids, M-MYC oncogene
Diabetes Type I vs II all you can list... GO!
I: insulin dependent, beta cell destruction, Ab to beta cells of pancreas, weight loss, Diabetic Ketoacoidosis, children, teens, HLA-DR34
II: non-insulin dependent, insulin receptor insensitivtiy, insulin levels elevated, obese adults, fm hx, polyuria, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (dehydration), advanced glycated end products, narrowing of small/med sized vessels, damage vasa vasora and nervosa, premature cataracts and retinopathy related to acc of sorbitol
Mature Onset Diabetes in the Young
Non-insulin dependent, no islet cell ab, not obese, <25
3-10% all pregnancies, resolves w/end of pregnancy, 50% develop T2DM w/in 15 yrs
Carcinoid syndrome what cells? S/S?
Neuroendocrine in gut
recurrent diarrhea, cutaneous flushing, bronchial wheezing
(1/3 mets, 1/3 multiple)
Insulinoma. Relieved by?
Pancreatic beta-islet cell tumor
Hypoglycemia relieved by food
Gastrinoma cause, S/S?
excess gastrin from GI tumor
Recurrent peptic ulcer disease (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)
Part of MEN type I
MEN Type 1
1: Wermer's syndrome, pituitary adenoma, parathyroid adenoma, pancreas adenoma
2a: Sipple's syndrome: medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, parathyroid hyperplasia
2b: Marfanoid ft, medullary thyroid CA, mucosal neuromas, pheochromocytoma
Failure of lower esophageal sphincter to relax; loss of ganglion cells (myenteric plexus)
Achalasia - mainly dysphagia for liquids
stomach into chest through diaphragm
Dilated V in lower esophagus (portal HTN)
chronic inflammation of lower esophagus due to acid regurgitation
Premalignant metaplastic change of lower esophagus due to GERD
linear tear in lower esophagus due to protracted vomiting and retching
Peptic ulcer disease
Gastric vs Duodenal ulcer
H. Pylori (lesser curvature, duodenum)
Inc pain w/meals for gastric
Dec pain w/meals for duodenal
Projectile vomiting in young male infants (<6 wks)
Congenital pyloric stenosis (hypertrophic pyloric sphincter)