General Principles, Nervous System and Genetic Disorders Flashcards Preview

Chiro Essentials Pathology > General Principles, Nervous System and Genetic Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Principles, Nervous System and Genetic Disorders Deck (90)
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1

5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation

1. Rubor
2. Dolor/pain
3.Calor/heat
4. Tumor/swelling
5. Functio laesa

2

Margination

Way WBC's move to periphery of BV by chemotaxis

3

Chemotaxis

Inflammatory compounds attract WBC

4

Pavementation

WBC's sticking to endothelium

5

Emigration/Diapedesis/Transmigration

Passage of WBC through blood vessels facilitated by chemotaxis

6

Phagocytosis

Process of ingestion of bacteria by macrophages which are from monocytes in blood

7

Vasodilation is mediated by what compounds ?

Histamine (degranulation of basophils)
Bradykinin/kallikrein (nociception)
Serotonin (from platelets)
Prostaglandins (further inflammation)

8

Differences between:
Abscess
Ulcer
Fistula
Sinus
Scar
Keloid

Abscess - pus filled cavity
Ulcer - loss of surface epithelium
Fistula - abnormal communication btw two epithelial surfaces
Sinus - blind-ending track connected to one epithelial surface
Scar - tissue healing with fibrous tissue
Keloid - overgrowth of fibrous scar tissue

9

Epithelioid cells

Activated macrophages in granulomatous conditions (TB, chronic inflammation)

10

Langhans cells

Giant cells in granulomatous disease formed by fusion of epithelioid cells

11

Metaplasia

Reversible change one cell type replaced by another

12

Dysplasia:

Disorderly but non-neoplastic growth (mild and reversible with removal of stimulus or severe could be precancerous)

13

Anaplasia

Disorganized, uncontrolled growth with lack of differentiation

14

Neoplasia

Describe new growth of cells and synonymous w/tumor

15

Red infarction

Hemorrhagic, organs w/dual blood supply (brain, liver, lung, gut)

16

White infarction

Organs w/end arteries (heart, kidney)

17

Agenesis

Complete absence of organ at birth

18

Aplasia

Due to failure of organ or tissue to develop normally

19

Hypoplasia

Underdevelopment of an organ or tissue resulting in decrease in the number of cells

20

Increase in number of cells in an organ

Hyperplasia

21

Increase in the size of cell organ not related to the number of cells

Hypertrophy

22

tresi

Congenital absence or closure of normal body opening

23

Decrease in size of organ/tissue

Atrophy

24

Necrosis, cause, organ
Coagulative
Liquefactive
Caseous
Enzymatic
Fat

Coagulative, infarction in heart, protein denaturation
Liquefactive, infarctions in brain, abscess
Caseous, TB, lung
Enzymatic, acute pancreatitis
Fat, liver damage, fatty tissue

25

Zenkers vs Wallerian degeneration

Z: waxy hyaline seen in skeletal muscle damage
W: dying back anterogrde of nerve axons after injury to nerves

26

Cell injured! Nuclear changes! What are they?
Pyknosis
Karyorrhexis
karyolysis

Pyknosis: irreversible nuclear chromatin condensation/clumping [ph change]
Karyorrhexis: irreversible chromatin fragmentation [Ca2+ influx]
karyolysis: enzymatic breakdown of DNA after cell death; complete disappearance of stainable nuclear material

27

X-linked tyrosine kinase defect (blocks B cell maturation in boys)

Bruton's agammaglobulinemia

28

DiGeorge yndrome:

thymic/parathyroid aplasia due to failure of 3/4th pharyngeal arch development --> deficient T cells

29

Often X-linked with defective B and T cell activation

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID)

30

X-linked defect w/progressive depletion of B/T cells

Wiskott-Aldrich