Neoplasia, MSK and Cardiovascular Path Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasia, MSK and Cardiovascular Path Deck (72)
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1

Burkitt's vs Hodgkin's lymphoma

Burkitt: starry-sky appearance, EBV (mosquito), MC in kids
Hodgkin's: Reed-Sternberg cells (binucleated cells, owl eye appearance), MC in adults

2

Adrenal medulla tumor secretes excess nor-epinephrine and symptoms?

Pheochromocytoma: paroxysms of palpitations, perspiration, pressure headaches, VMA in urine

3

Mesenchymal, stromal, epithelial cell tumor of the kidney

Wilm's - MC in kids

4

MC 1o bone cancer in adults

Multiple myeloma: malignant plasma cells in marrow, M spike (inc IgG), Bence Jones protein (urine), nocturnal bone pain, recurrent infections

5

MC 1o bone cancer in children and teens

Osteosarcoma: bones aroundknee joint - lower femur and upper tibia

6

What malignant bone tumor mimics osteomyelitis?

Ewing's Sarcoma

7

MC benign smooth muscle tumor in uterus?

Uterine leiomyome (fibroid)

8

4 Main Types of Leukemia - differentiate
Acute lymphoblastic
Acute myelogenous
Chronic myelogenous
Chronic lymphocytic

Acute lymphoblastic - <5 yrs
Acute myelogenous - 80% in adults, Auer rods+
Chronic myelogenous - 30-60 yrs, philadelphia chromosome (tranlocation Chromosome 9 to 22), anemia, bleeding, infxn
Chronic lymphocytic - >60, men, lymphadenopathy

9

BCR-abl

on philadelphia chromosome (CML)

10

N-MYC

neuroblastoma

11

L-MYC

Lung cancer

12

P16

Melanoma

13

These chemical carcinogens cause what?
Nitrosamine
Asbestos
Benzene
Aflatoxin

Nitrosamine - esophageal cancer
Asbestos - mesothelioma
Benzene - leukemia
Aflatoxin - hepatocellular carcinoma

14

Thee radiation carcinogens cause what?
UV light
X-rays
Uranium

UV light - melanoma
X-rays - thyroid cancer
Uranium - lung cancer

15

These microbial carcinogens cause what?
HPV 16/18
HHV 8
EBV
Hep B/C

HPV 16/18 - cervical cancer
HHV 8 - Kaposi sarcoma
EBV - Burkitt's lymphoma
Hep B/C - hepatocellular carcinoma

16

These tumor markers indicate what?
B-HCG
CEA
AFP
PSA
CA-125
S-100
Acanthosis nigricans

B-HCG: choriocarcinoma
CEA: colon cancer
AFP: hepatocellular carcinoma
PSA: Prostate cancer
CA-125: ovarian cancer
S-100: melanoma
Acanthosis nigricans: adenocarcinoma, lung, breast, stomach cancer (obesity, diabetes)

17

MC Cancer prevalence vs death

Prevalence M - prostate, F breast, then lung then colorectal
Deaths: lung then prostate/breast then bowel

18

Cyanotic vs Acyanotic heart disease

Cyanotic: R-L shunt (Fallot's tetralogy, Transposition of great vessels, persistent Truncus Arteriosus)
Acyanotic: L-R shund (VSD, ASD, PDA)

19

Fallot's tetraology

Pulmonary STENOSIS, rt ventricular hypertrophy, overriding aorta, VD

20

Failure of ostium secundum to close?

ASD

21

MC congenital heart disease?

VSD

22

Rheumatic fever:

Post strep infxn, TIIHS
Aschoff bodies (granulomas w/Anitschkow giantcells), MacCallum patches (L atrium)
Jones major criteria: sydenham's chorea, polyarthritis, erythema marginatum, carditis, subcutaneous nodules
MC damaged valve is mitral, then aortic rarely pulmonary or tricuspid

23

Endocarditis
Subacute bacterial:
Acute bacterial:
Libman-Sacks:

Endocarditis - Strep pyogenes/viridans, staph aureus
Subacute bacterial: infxn previous damaged valves (rheumatic fever) fever, new murmur, splinter hemorrhages, Olser's nodes, Janeway nodules
Acute bacterial: infxn of previously healthy valved - IV drug users
Libman-Sacks: sterile endocarditis of mitral and tricuspid valves in SLE

24

Thrombus vs Embolism

Thrombus: clot in atheroscleroticvessel w/line of Zahn
Embolism: dislodged mass of undissolved material in vessel travelling in blood (arterial - painful, pale, pulseless, perishingly cold limb)

25

Arterio vs Atherosclerosis

Arterio: thickening of A w/loss of elasticity and contractility due to infiltration of tunica intima by collagen and smooth muscle fibers
Athero: lipid/calcium deposits in tunica intima, RF's arterial HTN, tobacco, hereditary, endocrine, sedentary, obese, male, age and S/S subendothelial fatty streaks, fibrosis, atheroma, rupture w/eventual occlusion or embolus formation

26

Ischemic Heart DIsease vs MI

IHD: coronary atherosclerosis --> Angina, MI, CHF
MI: ischemic necrosi of myocardium due to blocked coronary A (L nt descending) pain not relieved by rest, release of cardiac enzymes (Troponin, CKMB, Lactic Dehydrogenase)

27

Angina Pectoris vs Prinzmetal

Pectoris: reversible inadequately perfused myocardium and pain aggravated by stress/exertion, relief w/rest
Prinzmetal: occur at rest due to coronary A spasm

28

Aneuyrsm:
Atherosclerotic
Dissecting
Syphilitic
Berry

Aneuyrsm: localized dilation of A
Atherosclerotic - MC AAA
Dissecting - longitudinal intraluminal tearing of ascending T aorta (Marfan's, Ehlers-Danlos, long HTN)
Syphilitic - 3o syphilis affects arch of aorta
Berry - congenital weaknesses >30 yrs (Adult polycystic disease of the kidney, anterior circle of Willis, subarachnoid hemorrhage in YA, severe thunder clap HA, neck stiff, LoC)

29

HTN
Essential
2o
Malignant

HTN: elevation BP >140/90 3+ visits
Essential: unknown, RF fam hx, lots of salt, stress, obesity
2o: unilateral renal A stenosis, hyperthyroidism, Cushing, pheochromocytoma
Malignant: rapidly progressing, severe vascular damage, early death from stroke/HF

30

CHF causes and symptoms

Cause: CAD, HTN, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy
Symptoms: dyspnea on exertion, basal crackles in lungs, paroxysmal nocturnaldyspnea, raised JVP, tender hepatomegaly, bilateral pitting ankle edema