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Flashcards in Endocrine system Deck (54)
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1

Cyclic AMP and cGMP are common 2nd messengers. What is the 1st messenger? 

A) a water soluble hormone
B) a lipid soluble hormone
C) adenylate cyclase
D) G protein
E) phosphodiesterase

2

The adrenal medulla

A) encloses the adrenal cortex.
B) is a modified parasympathetic ganglion.
C) contains chromaffin cells that primarily secrete norepinephrine.
D) contains an enzyme that converts epinephrine to norepinephrine if cortisol is present.
E) secretes hormones that intensify the fight-or-flight response.

3

Which of the following is NOT associated with hGH?

A) secreted by the most numerous cells in the adenohypophysis
B) increase protein synthesis
C) stimulate production and release of insulin-like growth factors
D) decrease lipolysis
E) spare glucose for use by the nervous system

4

The anterior pituitary gland responds to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), but the posterior pituitary gland does not. Why?

A) Only anterior pituitary gland is permeable to GnRH.
B) Only the anterior pituitary gland is vascular.
C) Only the anterior pituitary gland is connected by neurons to the hypothalamus.
D) Only the anterior pituitary gland is connected to a duct carrying GnRH.
E) Only the anterior pituitary gland has receptors for GnRH. 

4

How is hormone secretion regulated? 

A) by the nervous system
B) by other hormones
C) by changes in blood composition
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

5

The thyroid gland

A) lies posterior and superior to the larynx.
B) contains follicular cells that secrete calcitonin.
C) contains parafollicular cells that secrete T3/T4.
D) helps regulate metabolism and Ca2+ levels.
E) is embedded within the parathyroid gland. 

6

The pituitary gland

A) lies in the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone.
B) consists of two lobes, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis.
C) develops from outgrowths of endoderm.
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct. 

6

Which adrenal cortex layer is correctly matched to the regulatory function of its product? 

A) zona glomerulosa: female libido, axillary and pubic hair production
B) zona fasiculata: blood sugar level, inflammation, conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine
C) zona reticularis: blood Na+ and K+ levels; blood volume and blood pressure
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct. 

7

Which of the following hormones is produced by both the ovaries and the testes? 

A) estrogen
B) inhibin
C) progesterone
D) testosterone
E) FSH

8

The posterior pituitary gland

A) is also called the adenohypophysis.
B) contains pituicytes and the axons of neurons that originate in the hypothalamus.
C) synthesizes ADH and OT.
D) releases ADH and OT into the hypophyseal artery.
E) All of these are correct. 

9

In order to synthesize thyroid hormones, which materials must be available?

A) iodide
B) tyrosine (or its precursor, phenylalanine)
C) other amino acids required for thyroglobulin synthesis
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

10

An activist has been fasting for ten days to protest a violation of civil rights. His blood glucose level has fallen to 50 mg/dL.  Which of the following effects will the fast have on his endocrine system?

A) Less GHIH will be released from the hypothalamus.
B) Less GHRH will be released from the hypothalamus.
C) Less GH will be released from the anterior pituitary gland.
D) Less IGF will be released from the liver and other tissues.
E) Less glycogenolyis will occur in the liver.

11

Which of the following is not a 2nd messenger? 

A) G protein
B) IP3
C) Ca2+
D) DAG
E) cGMP

12

A patient has a tumor causing excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). How will his body attempt to compensate for excessive amounts of PTH?

A) His body will up-regulate the receptors for PTH to become less sensitive to that hormone.
B) His body will up-regulate the receptors for PTH to become more sensitive to that hormone.
C) His body will down-regulate the receptors for PTH to become less sensitive to that hormone.
D) His body will down-regulate the receptors for PTH to become more sensitive to that hormone.
E) His body will make hormone blockers that prevent PTH from binding to receptors.

12

Increased levels of thyroid hormones would

A) decrease basal metabolic rate.
B) up regulate beta receptors
C) impair body growth.
D) decrease the effects of norepinephrine on the heart and blood vessels.
E) decrease protein synthesis. 

14

Which of the following is NOT typically caused by a hormone? 

A) synthesis of new molecules
B) alteration of plasma membrane permeability
C) stimulating the contraction of skeletal muscles
D) alteration of the rate of metabolism
E) stimulation of secretion

15

Which of the following hormones is effective when taken orally?  

A) estrogen
B) cortisone
C) insulin
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct. 

16

Which of the following is true of the endocrine system but not the nervous system?

 

A) directs long term processes such as pregnancy and puberty
B) communicates via chemical signals
C) regulates activities of muscles and glands
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

17

How does PTH increase blood Ca2+ levels?

A) by increasing osteoclasts activity
B) by increasing renal excretion of Ca2+
C) by decreasing renal excretion of HPO42-
D) by decreasing renal production of calcitriol
E) All of these are correct. 

18

ADH 

A) is also called vasopressin.
B) inhibits loss of water via urination.
C) decreases loss of water via perspiration.
D) helps regulate blood pressure.
E) All of these are correct. 

19

Which of the following is NOT an endocrine gland? 

A) thyroid gland
B) adrenal gland
C) sudoriferous gland
D) pituitary gland
E) parathyroid gland

19

The parathyroid glands

A) are on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
B) contain chief cells, which secrete PTH.
C) are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct. 

20

The resistance stage of the stress response

A) precedes the fight-or-flight response.
B) is mediated primarily by CRH, GHRH, and TRH.
C) is briefer than the fight-or-flight response.
D) decreases blood glucose levels.
E) increases the inflammation response. 

22

Calcitonin and parathyroid hormones have opposite effects on blood Ca2+ level, therefore they are considered to be

A) synergists
B) permissive
C) antagonist
D) repressive
E) agonistic

24

A single molecule ____ can create an amplification effect because it acts via the 2nd messenger mechanism.

A) aldosterone
B) epinephrine
C) estrogen
D) progesterone
E) testosterone

25

Calcitonin

A) is synthesized by the parathyroid glands.
B) acts primarily on osteoblasts.
C) decreases blood Ca2+ levels.
D) acts synergistically with calcitriol.
E) acts permissively with PTH. 

25

Which of the following hormones is correctly matched to its source and function(s)?

A) melatonin: pituitary gland; controls mood
B) thymosin: thyroid gland; regulates metabolism
C) gastrin: kidney; controls blood pressure
D) ANP: heart; regulates blood Ca2+
E) EPO: kidney; stimulates formation of red blood cells

26

Where is the axon terminal?

In the posteriror pituitary

27

Which of the following is NOT correct?

A) A change in the environment that produces a stress response is a stressor.
B) Eustress is productive stress that allows the body or mind to meet challenges.
C) Distress is stress that disrupts homeostasis.
D) The stress response is controlled primarily by the medulla oblongata.
E) The stress response occurs in fight-or-flight, resistance and exhaustion stages. 

28

What do T3 and T4 have in common with epinephrine and norepinephrine? 

A) They are all water-soluble.
B) They are all lipid-soluble.
C) They are all derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
D) They are all made by both the nervous and endocrine systems.
E) They are all made by the adrenal glands.