Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

Med Surg III Exam 1 > Endocrinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (69):
1

what is endocrine?

released into circulation and finds the cell that is specific to a ligand (target organ)

2

what are the major endocrine glands?

hypothalamus, pituitary (anterior and posterior), thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, kidney, adrenal glands, and ovaries/testes

3

what are the 5 hormones the hypothalamus releases?

TRH (thyrotropin - releasing horomone)
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone)
CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)
Somatostatin

4

where does TRH target?

anterior lobe of pituitary

5

what is the action of TRH

stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

6

what does GnRH target?

anterior lobe of pituitary

7

what is the action of GnRH?

stimulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH)

8

what does GHRH target?

anterior lobe of pituitary

9

what is the action of GHRH?

stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH)

10

what does CRH target?

anterior lobe of pituitary

11

what is the action of CRH

stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

12

what does somatostatin target?

anterior lobe of the pituitary

13

what is the action of somatostatin?

inhibits the release of GH and TSH

14

where else is somatostatin found and what is the action from that endocrine gland?

found in the pancreas.... regulates insulin and glucagon

15

the hypothalamus exerts ______________________________ over the anterior pituitary

hormonal control of the anterior pituitary through releasing and inhibiting hormones

16

what are the 6 hormones released from anterior pituitary?

GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, and prolactin

17

what is the target of GH

bones, muscles, and organs

18

what is the action of GH

stimulate body growth by: increasing protein synthesis and fat mobilization and decreasing carbohydrate utilization

19

how does GH stimulate and control the rate of skeletal and visceral growth

directly influencing protein, carbs, and lipid metabolism

20

what is the target for TSH

thyroid

21

what is the action of TSH

stimultes secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)

22

what is the target for ACTH?

adrenal cortex

23

what is the action of ACTH?

stimulates secretion of adrenal cortex hormones (mineralcorticoid, glucocorticoid, and sex hormones)

24

what is the target of FSH

ovaries and testes

25

what is the action of FSH

stimulates follicle to produce estrogen and promotes maturation of sperm

26

what is the target for LH

testes and ovaries

27

what is the action of LH

stimulates ovulation, stimulates testes to secrete testosterone

28

what is the target for prolactin

mammary glands

29

what is the action of prolactin

stimulates secretory activity (growth of breast tissue ans sustains milk production post partum)

30

_______________________ connect the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary

neural pathways.... hypothalamus has direct control over both the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary

31

what are the 2 hormones released by the posterior pituitary gland?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

32

what is the target for ADH

distal tubules of kidney

33

what is the action of ADH

re-absorption of water (controls concentration of body fluids by alteration of the permeability of the kidney's distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts to conserve water

34

what are stimulators for ADH

circulatory shock, severe hemorrhage, pain, emotional stress, trauma, morphine, tranquilizers, anesthetics, and positive-pressure breathing

35

what is the target for oxytocin

uterus and mammary glands

36

what is the action of oxytocin

stimulates birth contractions and milk production

37

what are the 3 hormones released by the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

T4/T3, thyrocalcitonin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH)

38

what is the target for T4/T3

widespread

39

what ist he action for T4/T3

regulate metabolism; (the rate at which we convert food and oxygen into energy) and to increased metabolic activity and protein synthesis

40

what is the target for thyrocalcitonin

skeleton

41

what is the action of thyrocalcitonin

regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism

42

what is the target for PTH

bone, kidney, intestinal tract

43

what is the action for PTH

regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism and calcification of bone - senses calcium levels in the bloodstream... low concentration = release of PTH

44

when PTH is released, what happens?

efflux of calcium and phosphate from bone, decreased loss of calcium and excretion of phosphate in urine, and enhanced absorption of calcium/phosphate from intestine

45

what are the 3 hormones released by the pancreas?

insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin

46

what is the target for insulin

widespread (beta cells)

47

what is the action of insulin

increase utilization rate of cards, decrease lipolysis, and decrease blood glucose -- facilitates glucose transport, promotes glucose storage, stimulates protein synthesis, and enhances free fatty acid uptake and storage

48

what is the target for glucagon?

widespread (from alpha cells)

49

what is the action of glucagon?

hyperglycemic factor -- increase blood glucose via glycogenolysis..... hormone of the fasting state - releases stored glucose to raise the blood glucose level

50

what is the target for somatostatin from the pancreas?

widespread (delta cells)

51

what is the action of somatostatin from the pancreas?

regulate the release of insulin and glucagon

52

what are the 5 hormones that are released from the adrenal gland?

epinephrine, norepinephrine, aldosterone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones

53

what are the 2 released from the medulla of the adrenal gland?

epinephrine and norepinephrine

54

what is the target for epinephrine

widespread

55

what is the action of epinhephrine

increase rate and force of muscular contraction of heart, increase CO, constricts peripheral blood vessels, elevated BP, and elevates blood glucose

56

what is the target for norepinephrine

widespread

57

what is the action of norepinephrine

vasoconstrictio

58

what is the target of aldosterone (mineralocorticoid)

primarily kidney

59

what is the action of aldosterone

influences retention of fluid and electrolytes (K); regulates reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium by kidneys and is involved in the regulation of BP

60

what is the target from glucocorticoids?

widespread

61

what is the action of glucocorticoids?

promotes gluconeogensis, suppresses inflammation, regulates metabolism of proteins, carbs, and lipids to cause an elevation in blood glucose level

62

what is glucocorticoids referred to?

anti-insulin diabetogenic hormones

63

what is the target of sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone)

gonads

64

what is the action of sex hormones

influence secondary sex characteristics

65

what are the 3 hormones released by the ovaries/testes?

estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone

66

what is the target for estrogen and progesterone?

uterus, breast

67

what is the action of estrogen and progesterone?

secondary sex characteristics; maturation and sexual function; pregnancy

68

what is the target of testosterone?

widespread

69

what is the action of testosterone?

secondary sex characteristics; maturation and normal sexual function