Flashcards in Thyroid and Adrenal Gland Disorders Deck (34):
When circulating levels of T3 and T4 have dropped, what does the hypothalamus do?
signals the pituitary gland via TRH, which sends TSH to thyroid to trigger the release of thyroid hormones T4 and T3
What is the name for hyperthyroidism
Grave's Disease - excessive elevation of body metabolism
what are the s/s of grave's disease?
nervousness, fatigue/weakness, tachycardia, sweating, heat intolerance, diarrhea, goiter, tremor an exothalmosis
what is a goiter
enlargement of the thyroid
what is exophtalmos?
abnormal protrusion of the eyes
What is a thyroid storm? s/s?
high fever, severe tachycardia, delirium, dehydration, extreme irritability or agitation
what are the PT implications for hyperthyroidism?
exercise intolerance - extreme fatigue
what is the medical management of hyperthyroidism?
what are the side effects for PTU
fever, HA, paresthesia, rash, arthralgia, and jaundice
what is hypothyroidism?
deficiency of the thyroid hormone that results in a generalized slow body metabolism and decreased secretion of the thyroid hormones... TSH is increased from anterior pituitary
what are some s/s of a slow metabolic rate
bradycardia, decreased GI mobility, slowing neurological function, decrease in body heat production, ELEVATED TSH levels
what are cretinism s/s (hypothyroidism disease)
congenital hypothyroidism, stunted growth, and decreased intelligence
what are adult onset causes of hypothyroidism
hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypopituitarism, severe iodine deficiency, thyroid surgery, drug toxicity
what are the s/s of hypothyroidism?
fatigue, constipation, weight gain, cold intolerance, goiter, weakness, paresthesia, non-pitting edeam, bradycardia with HTN
what are PT implications for hypothyroidism?
exercise intolerance, weakness, apathy secondary to decreased metabolic rate ---- remain alert to signs of rhabodomyolysis
what is the name for untreated hypothyroidism?
what are s/s of myedema?
swelling, anemia, coma, and death
what is the medical management of hypothyroidism?
thyroid hormones --- watch for hyperthyroidism
how does one control PTH secretion
low concentration -- release of PTH -- efflux of calcium from bone, decreased loss of calcium in urine, and enhanced absorption of calcium from intestion --- increased concentration of calcium in blood
what are s/s of hypoparathyroidism
causes hypocalcemia -- paresthesia, muscle aches/cramps, twitching, fatigue/weakness, anxiety, HA, memory problems
hyperparathyroidism can lead to (3)
bone damage, hypercalcemia, and kidney damage
what are the s/s of hyperparathyroidism
osteoporosis, bone fracture, kidney stones, peptic ulcers, pancreatitis, and nervous system complaints
characteristics of hyperparathyroidism
1. increased bone resorption
2. elevated serum calcium levels
3. depressed serum phosphate levels
4. hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia
5. decreased neuromuscular irritability
characteristics of hypoparathyroidism
1. decreased bone resorption
2. depressed serum calcium levels
3. elevated serum phosphate levels
4. hypocalciuria and hypophosphaturia
increased neuromuscular activity
ACTH secreted by the pituitary has a key role in ______.
cortisol release from the adrenal cortex
cortex hormone hypersecretion --
what is Cushing's Syndrome a result of?
hyperfunction of adrenal gland, excess of corticosteroid medication, or excess of ACTH stimulation from the pituitary
s/s of Cushing's Syndrome?
same as Cushing's Disease
what is the name of the disease caused by cortex hormone hyposecretion?
what is addison's disease
insufficient cortisol release; secondary adrenal insufficiency as a result of suppression of ACTH by steroid therapy or secondary to opportunistic infection related to HIV
what are s/s of Addison's Disease?
changes in BP an HR, chronic diarrhea, increased skin pigmentation, paleness, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, N/V, salt craving, slow/sluggish movement, weight loss
Glucocorticoid deficiency causes what?
widespread metabolic disturbances - gluconeogenesis decreases (hypoglycemia)
chronic adrenal insufficiency with chronic cortisol deficiency results in:
failure to inhibit anterior pituitary secretion of ACTH -- simultaneous increase of CTH secretion