Thyroid and Adrenal Gland Disorders Flashcards Preview

Med Surg III Exam 1 > Thyroid and Adrenal Gland Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thyroid and Adrenal Gland Disorders Deck (34):
1

When circulating levels of T3 and T4 have dropped, what does the hypothalamus do?

signals the pituitary gland via TRH, which sends TSH to thyroid to trigger the release of thyroid hormones T4 and T3

2

What is the name for hyperthyroidism

Grave's Disease - excessive elevation of body metabolism

3

what are the s/s of grave's disease?

nervousness, fatigue/weakness, tachycardia, sweating, heat intolerance, diarrhea, goiter, tremor an exothalmosis

4

what is a goiter

enlargement of the thyroid

5

what is exophtalmos?

abnormal protrusion of the eyes

6

What is a thyroid storm? s/s?

high fever, severe tachycardia, delirium, dehydration, extreme irritability or agitation

7

what are the PT implications for hyperthyroidism?

exercise intolerance - extreme fatigue

8

what is the medical management of hyperthyroidism?

propylthiouracil (PTU)

9

what are the side effects for PTU

fever, HA, paresthesia, rash, arthralgia, and jaundice

10

what is hypothyroidism?

deficiency of the thyroid hormone that results in a generalized slow body metabolism and decreased secretion of the thyroid hormones... TSH is increased from anterior pituitary

11

what are some s/s of a slow metabolic rate

bradycardia, decreased GI mobility, slowing neurological function, decrease in body heat production, ELEVATED TSH levels

12

what are cretinism s/s (hypothyroidism disease)

congenital hypothyroidism, stunted growth, and decreased intelligence

13

what are adult onset causes of hypothyroidism

hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypopituitarism, severe iodine deficiency, thyroid surgery, drug toxicity

14

what are the s/s of hypothyroidism?

fatigue, constipation, weight gain, cold intolerance, goiter, weakness, paresthesia, non-pitting edeam, bradycardia with HTN

15

what are PT implications for hypothyroidism?

exercise intolerance, weakness, apathy secondary to decreased metabolic rate ---- remain alert to signs of rhabodomyolysis

16

what is the name for untreated hypothyroidism?

myxedema

17

what are s/s of myedema?

swelling, anemia, coma, and death

18

what is the medical management of hypothyroidism?

thyroid hormones --- watch for hyperthyroidism

19

how does one control PTH secretion

low concentration -- release of PTH -- efflux of calcium from bone, decreased loss of calcium in urine, and enhanced absorption of calcium from intestion --- increased concentration of calcium in blood

20

what are s/s of hypoparathyroidism

causes hypocalcemia -- paresthesia, muscle aches/cramps, twitching, fatigue/weakness, anxiety, HA, memory problems

21

hyperparathyroidism can lead to (3)

bone damage, hypercalcemia, and kidney damage

22

what are the s/s of hyperparathyroidism

osteoporosis, bone fracture, kidney stones, peptic ulcers, pancreatitis, and nervous system complaints

23

characteristics of hyperparathyroidism

1. increased bone resorption
2. elevated serum calcium levels
3. depressed serum phosphate levels
4. hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia
5. decreased neuromuscular irritability

24

characteristics of hypoparathyroidism

1. decreased bone resorption
2. depressed serum calcium levels
3. elevated serum phosphate levels
4. hypocalciuria and hypophosphaturia
increased neuromuscular activity

25

ACTH secreted by the pituitary has a key role in ______.

cortisol release from the adrenal cortex

26

cortex hormone hypersecretion --

Cushing's Syndrome

27

what is Cushing's Syndrome a result of?

hyperfunction of adrenal gland, excess of corticosteroid medication, or excess of ACTH stimulation from the pituitary

28

s/s of Cushing's Syndrome?

same as Cushing's Disease

29

what is the name of the disease caused by cortex hormone hyposecretion?

Addison's Disease

30

what is addison's disease

insufficient cortisol release; secondary adrenal insufficiency as a result of suppression of ACTH by steroid therapy or secondary to opportunistic infection related to HIV

31

what are s/s of Addison's Disease?

changes in BP an HR, chronic diarrhea, increased skin pigmentation, paleness, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, N/V, salt craving, slow/sluggish movement, weight loss

32

Glucocorticoid deficiency causes what?

widespread metabolic disturbances - gluconeogenesis decreases (hypoglycemia)

33

chronic adrenal insufficiency with chronic cortisol deficiency results in:

failure to inhibit anterior pituitary secretion of ACTH -- simultaneous increase of CTH secretion

34

Aldosterone promotes:

conservation of sodium (fluid retention) - conservation of water and excretion of potassium