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Measurement is the comparison with a standard.
Measurements are made using Analog and Digital


analog measurement

Humans perceive their surroundings as a continuous
transmission of information. This non‐stop stream of information is defined as
Analog information


digital measurement

Digital information is an estimation of real world
analog information.
 The process of obtaining digital information is known
as Analog‐to‐Digital Conversion (ADC)


analog v digital

analog is more accurate, digital is easier to manipulate


taking measurements

Engineering requires measurements to be made
concerning the physical qualities that influence a
design solution.
 One cannot assume that a measurement is exact.
 The use of Significant Figures provides a way of
showing how “good” a measured value is.


significant figure/digit

Constants & Conversion Factors
 Considered an exact value.
 Exact values have an infinite () number of
significant digits.
 Will not influence the Significant Digit count of a
final answer.



Accuracy is the closeness of an observation or
measurement to its true value.



the quality or state of being precise: exactness


systematic error

a type of error that deviates by a fixed amount from the true value of measurement, all measuremnts are prone to systematic errors.because systematic error is fixed over the range of the measurement it is often referred to as a bias


sources of systematic error

uncalibrated measurement device (easy to correct), environmental changes which interfere with the measurement process (difficult to identify and correct), imperfect of incorrect method of taking the measurement


random error

a type of error that adds variability to the measurement but does not affect average performance for the group, random error is the result of uncontrolled factors affecting the measurement across the sample, referred to as measurement noise