ENT Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

ENT > ENT Anatomy and Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENT Anatomy and Physiology Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the main parts of the ENT system

ears, nose, throat, lymph nodes, hearing and smell.

2

What structures make up the external ear? middle? internal?

External: pinna, external auditory canal, TM, helix.

Middle: ET tube, tympanic cavity w/ ossicles

Inner: vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea

3

Blood supply to..
-the ear
-the nose
-the mouth
-the larynx
-the jaw
-the neck

Ear: External Carotid Artery

Nose: branches of ophthalmic and maxillary artery (internal carotid artery)


Mouth: sublingual, lingual, deep, and dorsal lingual arteries... which branch from external carotid

Larynx: superior laryngeal...branch of external carotid

Jaw: external carotid

Neck: common carotids

4

What are the nerves that supply the..
-external ear
-middle ear
-inner ear

external: arnolds nerve branch of the vagus nerve

middle: no one cares.

inner: facial and vestibulocochlear nerve

5

Purpose of the Eustachian Tube

-air exchange (pressure)
-excretory (drain middle ear)
-defense (preventing infection)

6

Which portions of the basilar membrane (of the cochlea) transfer lower and higher frequencies?

Apical portion (most curled) transfers lower frequencies

basal end relays higher frequencies

7

What direction does each of the following semicircular canals respond to?
-superior
-posterior
-lateral

superior: head up and down. yes movement

posterior: touching ear to shoulder

lateral: shake head NO, side to side.

8

what is ala nasi?

-the rounded lower borders of the nose

9

what bones make up each wall of the nasal cavity?
-roof
-floor
-medial
-lateral

Roof: frontonasal, ehtmoidal, sphenoidal

Floor: palatine process of maxilla, palantine bone

Medial: nasal septum, ethmoid bone, vomer, palatine bone

Lateral: 3 nasal conchae

10

Which area of the nose is most prone to bleeds?

-kiesselbach

11

Function of the nose

-respiration
-air conditioning
-protection
-olfaction
-eustachian tube =permits the nose to equalize pressure
-drainage

12

Which neuronal cells renew?

olfaction and gustatory

13

what nerve runs through the parotid gland and what are its branches?

-facial nerve runs through the parotid and it has 5 branches:
1. temporal
2. zygomatic
3. buccal
4. mandibular
5. cervical

14

What are the three parts of the tooth?

-crown: portion covered by enamel

-root

-pulp cavity: houses dental pulp = nerves, arteries, veins, and lymph channels

15

What are the taste buds and which do not actually taste?

filiform* = dont have taste buds (most front part of tongue)

fungiform

vallate

foliate
(most back part of tongue)

16

what are the 5 taste sensations? Describe their signal transduction

sweet(tip, upper 1/3)), sour(back 1/3), bitter (back), salty(middle 1/3), umami

salty and sour use Na and H channels whereas bitter and sweet use GPCR ...CN VII (anterior 2/3), IX (posterior 1/3), and X carry these signals to the brain.

17

What are the muscles of the tongue?

4 extrinsic and 4 intrinsic

Extrinsic:
-genioglossus = protrudes tongue
-hyoglossus = depresses the tongue
-styloglossus = elevates and retracts tongue
-palatoglossus = depresses soft palate and depresses back of tongue

Intrinsic:
-superior longitudinal
-inferior longitudinal
-ventricle
-transverse

18

Nerve innervation of tongue

VII = facial, anterior 2/3

IX = glossopharyngeal, posterior 1/3

X and XII = motor. Vagus and hypoglossal

19

pharynx extends from the base of the skull to?..

the 6th cervical vertebrae

20

What is the blood/nerve supply to the pharynx?

Blood: facial artery

Nerve: maxillary, glossopharyngeal and vagus

21

Function of pharynx

swallowing

breathing

speech

equalize pressure in middle ear

immunity

22

function of larynx

producing voice, swallowing, breathing, protect the lower airway

23

larynx is composed of what three types of cartilage?

(superior) epiglottis....thyroid....cricoid (inferior)

24

Glottis is open during sound production?

FALSE!! its closed during sound production.. and open during breathing

25

Vocal cords voice mechanism

-air pressure system (regulates air pressure to cause vocal fold vibration)

-vibratory system (voice box, converts vibration to sound waves)

-resonating system (changes buzzy sound into recognizable voice)

26

Nerve supply to the larynx?

superior laryngeal nerve and recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve.

27

What muscles elevate the mandible to bite?

-masseter, temporalis, and lateral/medial pterygoid muscle

28

What are the margins of the anterior triangle of the neck? what are the 4 sub triangles this possesses?

Anterior triangle margins: midline, SCM, body of mandible.

1. submental
2. submandibular
3. carotid
4. muscular

29

What are the margins of the posterior cervical triangle? what are the 2 sub triangles?

clavical, SCM, trapezius

1.occipital
2. subclavian/supraclavicular