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Flashcards in Environment I and II Deck (58)
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1

which drug is the major offender causing osteoparosis?

corticosteroids

2

which drugs are primary offenders for PE?

oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy

3

Renal papillary necrosis is caused mainly by which groups of drugs?

aspirin and phenacetin

4

broad spectrum antibiotics are well known to cause what GI problem?

pseudomembranous colitis

5

which bacteria is usually the culprit for psudomembranous colits?

C. diff

6

what makes up the membrane in pseudomembranous colitis?

necrotic cellular material and inflammatory cells

7

The number of cancer survivors is increasing each year because?

1) earlier detection
2) Better supportive care and treatment

8

What is considered one of the largest risk factors for acquiring a secondary cancer?

treatment for the primary cancer

9

why are these cancers usually associated with secondary cancers? (Hodgkins, non Hodgkins, breast cancer, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer)

1) treated with radiation and chemotherapy
2) usually occur early in life so more time to get another cancer

10

which one type of cancer is highly associated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy?

Leukemia

11

which 3 types of cancer are frequently associated with just radiotherapy?

Leukemia
Thyroid cancer
Female breast cancer

12

what are the 4 things that are usually measured in air pollution?

1) PM
2) 03
3) SO2
4) NO2

13

what is the most common sign of asbestos exposure?

localized fibrous plaques

14

which disease process is characteristic of fibrous plaques (focally calcified) in the pleural surface of the diaphragm that can be seen on X-ray?

Asbestos related fibrosis

15

what are the two forms of asbestos fibers?

chrysotile (curly and flexable)
amphibole (straight, stiff, brittle)

16

which type of asbestos fiber is the most common type found is individuals?

chrysotile type. It accouts for 95%

17

which type of asbestos fiber is most pathogenic?

Amphibole type. They go deeper into the lungs

18

which type of asbestos fiber cause lung cancer and fibrosis?

Both

19

when you see fibrosis due to asbestos encasing the heart and lungs as well as the diaphragm, what type of fiber would you suspect is causing this damage?

Amphibole type fiber because they are more pathogenic.

20

T/F smoking + asbestos increasing your risk for lung cancer 2x?

False it actually increases it 55 fold

21

What signs and symptoms arise with CO poisoning?

(just like alcohol intoxication)
#1 headache followed by:
nausea, breathlessness, dizziness, collapse, loss of consciousness

22

If you find a person that is bright red (skin) and passed out on the floor what should immediately come to mind? (other than thinking that this man has got redman syndrome for vanco)

1) CO poisoning. cherry red skin in blotches.

23

post CO poisoning, what findings would you expect to see in the brain?

1) bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus
2) sommers sector of hippocampus
3) cerebellar lesions

24

T/F the average radon concentration in iowa is 6X more than the national average?

TRUE

25

How does radon cause pathology?

It breaks down in a radioactive fashion releasing alpha particles. These can cause free radicals or directly cause double strand breaks in the DNA

26

What is the leading cause of lung cancer? #2 cause?

#1 smoking.
#2 is radon

27

T/F Radon is the 7th leading cause of all cancer cancer deaths?

TRUE

28

What is the best way to prevent radon from entering into your house?

#1 suck it out before it even enters.
This would be followed by sealing all cracks and holes entering into your house.

29

T/F lead poisoning is decreasing?

TRUE

30

which group of individuals is most prone to having lead poisoning?

children
poverty (old houses)