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Flashcards in Endocrine I and II Deck (108)
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1

What 2 things function as the conductor of most of our endocrine function?

Hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary

(parathyroid excluded)

2

Hypothalamic function govern anterior pituitary output of what 6 hormones?

prolactin
GH
ACTH
TSH
FSH
LH

3

M:F ratio of pituitary adenoma?

1:2

4

What are the characteristics of a macro adenoma?

>1cm and can invade locally

5

What are the all the symptom effects of a pituitary tumor from?

1. Hormone production
2. pressure effects (optic chiasm, sinus)
3. Carcinoma (rare)
4. atypical adenoma seen occasionally

6

What is the most common adenoma?

Null cell, non-secreting

7

What is the most common functioning adenomas?

prolactinomas (30%)

8

What is a mammosomatotroph adenoma?

Prolactin-GH bihormonal adenoma

9

Prolactinoma causes what?

galactorhea, amenorrhea, loss of libido, infertility

10

GH releasing adenoma causes what?

Young: gigantism
Old: acromegaly,

11

ACTH releasing adenoma causes what?

cushings

12

A Thyrotroph ademona causes what?

thyrotoxicosis

13

What does a gonadotroph adenoma cause?

UP FSH AND LH--> abnormal menses, loss of libido, often asymptomatic

14

Review- what 3 cells are found in anterior pituitary to help us know what it is ?

chromophobes
acidophils
basophils

15

What 2 things does the posterior pituitary secrete?

1. Oxytocin
2. vasopressin/Antidiuretic Hormone

16

Does vasopressin effect movement of electrolytes?

No- just H20

17

What comes from ADH deficiency?

Diabetes insipidus- thirst, low specific gravity polyuria, serum Na/osmol UP,

18

What comes from excess ADH release?
What type of injury would cause this?
What else can cause?

1. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion- Hyponatremia, cerebral edema
2. injury to HYPOTHALAMUS
3.Ectopic secreting tumors (small cell carcinoma in lung)

19

What is a normal functioning thyroid called even though it has pathology, goiter, adenoma etc?

Euthyroid

20

What is the result of thyroid hyper function? hypo function?

1. thyrotoxicosis
2. myxedema

21

Can the thyroid be inflamed? have tumors?

yes 1. acute and chronic 2. Primary (benign and malignant), secondary

22

What are the 3 most common causes of thyrotoxicosis?

1. Graves 85%
2. Toxic multinodular goiter
3. Toxic Adenoma

[Others--postpartum, thyroiditis, thyroid carcinoma, TSH pituitary tumor, Struma ovarii, exogenous iodine or thyroxin ingestion]

23

What is th M:F ratio of Grave's?
MHC classes- for review?
What gene polymorphism prevents T cell response to self antigens?

1. -1:7
2. HLA-B8, HLA-DR3
3. CTLA-4

24

What are the 3 TSH receptor antibodies?

1. TSI- specific to graves
2. Thyroid growth stimulating Ig
3. TSH binding inhibitors- mimic TSH [weird]

25

Review the list of Grave's disease signs-- they are a little different- just BUZZ WORDS

1. Exophthalmos
2. Pretibial edema, NON-PITTING
3. Enlarged gland- bruit
4. HOT AND SKINNY
5. Tremor
6. Fine Hair

cut surface uniform, hemorrhages, proliferating follicular cells RAGGED SCALLOPED WATERY COLLOID

26

What is cretinism due to?

hypothyroidism

27

What is cretinism?

severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (congenital hypothyroidism) due to maternal nutritional deficiency of iodine.

28

What is myxedema from?

Hypothyroidism

29

What is the primary cause of loss of thyroid tissue? secondary?

1. Di george
2. Hashimoto's, irradiation

30

Besides loss of thyroid tissue, what are some other causes of myxedema?

1. pituitary- low TSH
2. Hypothalamus- low TRH
3. Reduced thyroid synthesis- error, autoimmune, dietary
4. Thyroid hormone resistant syndrome- receptor mutation
5. Mutations in TSH receptor- hypoplasia
6. other mutations--->thyroid agenesis and cleft