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1

What is environmental ethics?

Environmental ethics considers the ethical relationship between people and the natural world and the kind of decisions people have to make about the environement It simply tries to answer the questions of how humans should relate to their environment, how we should use the Earth's resources and how we should treat other species, both plant and animal.

2

What is anthropocentric?

An approach to the environment that places human interests above those of any other species.

3

What quote does Peter Singer use to criticise the idea that humans have 'dominion' over the natural world?

"According to the Dominant Western tradition, the natural world exists for the benefit of human beings. God does not care how we treat it. Human beings are the only morally important members of this world. Nature itself is of no intrinsic value"

4

How could it be argued from a biblical perspective that the world has intrinsic value?

God seems to value the natural world, 'God saw that it was good', and the blessing to 'Be fruitful and multiply' is given to all creation. Creation is called to praise and glorify God. He is shown as having continuing concern about his creation- not even a sparrow "will fall to the ground apart from your Father" (without God's knowledge and permission). If God values creation and creation in return can respond to God, then it seems that the Bible says that all creation has intrinsic value.

5

How could it be argued from a biblical perspective that Humanity has dominion over the world?

God has a special concern for humanity- we are made in God's image. We are given dominion over all creations- "let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth."

6

How did St Francis of Assisi view creation?

He understand that God communicates to us through the natural world, and that it is a sin to destroy them. He believed that natural world is inherently good and it is a sign of God's goodness, and so its purpose is to inspire our respect and love. However, he took this a stage further as he believed that all creatures had the ability and the duty to worship God, all are part of the same creation with the same intrinsic value. But he also recognised that humans are the high point of God's creation because we are created in his iamge.

7

What is dominion?

The Judaeo-Christian idea that humans have a special place in the natural world and have responsibility for it.

8

What did Peter Singer argue was the root cause of our environmental problems?

THe idea that dominion may be understood as considering that the natural world can be treated however we wish and be tamed for our use, and that we should 'subdue' the Earth (Genesis 1:28)

9

What is the difference between Genesis 1 and 2?

When the second creation account in Genesis 2 is compared to the first, we are told that man is put in Eden to protect and preserve it: "THe Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and keep it" (Genesis 2:15)

10

Why can it be argued that humans are the peak of creation?

Humans may be the peak of creation, but only because we have the role of stewardship- we are to care for and conserve creation because it belongs to God: humans are merely caretakers of his properties.

11

What would belief in Stewardship say about our relationship with the natural world?

Humans are co-creators with God and need to use and transform the natural world with care. Creation is made by God and is good,and so much be preserved because it has intrinsic value.

12

What is stewardship?

A way of interpreting the use of dominion, which sees humans as caretakers of the natural world.

13

How is the Fall seen by some to be the cause of our environmental problems?

Because from this point we became poor stewards of creation: "The earth dries up and withes, the world languishes and withers; the heavens languish together with the earth. The earth lies polluted under its inhabitants; for they have transgressed laws, violated the statutes, broken the everlasting covenant" (Isaiah 14:4-5)

14

What do Christians teach about our responsibility to the environment?

They teach that we need to use our increasing knowledge to rectify this and re-establish the bond between God and man, between God and the natural world. Thus for Christians the environment must be protected, and past mistakes must be used as learning tools and rectified where possible

15

Why might some Christians believe that we don't need to look after the environment?

They do believe that humans have 'dominion' and that the Genesis creation story teaches that 'man' is superior to nature and can use its resources unchecked. Those who believe in the 'end-time' feel that concern for the Earth and the natural world is irrelevant because they have no future. Destruction of the environment is to be welcomed, and even helped along, as it is a sign of the coming of the Apocalypse and the second coming of christ.

16

What does Pastor John Hagee say about environmental and social issues?

He says that the environmental and social crisies of today are portents of the Rapture, when born-again Christians living and dead will be taken into heaven: "All over the earth, graves will explode as the occupants soar into the heavens", he preaches. Non-believers left behind will have seven years of suffering, culminating in the rise of the Antichrist, and the final battle of Armageddon. Once the battle is won, Christ will send the non-believers to hell and re-green the Earth, where he will reign in peace with his followers.

17

What is meant by biocentric?

An approach to the environment that considers the biological nature and diversity of the Earth to be of supreme importance.

18

What was the modern study of environmental ethics a response to?

The work of scientists such as Rachel Carson and her influential book silent spring, which explored the idea of interconnectedness through a study of the use of pesticides and how their effect is felt through the food chain. The fate of one species is linked with that of all other species, including humans.

19

What did Alan Marshall claim were the three main ethical approaches to the environment over the last 20 years?

1. Libertarian extension or deep ecology
2. Ecologic extension or eco-holism (including the Gaia hypothesis)
3. Conservation ethics or shallow ecology

20

What is shallow and deep ecology also referred to as?

Because in thought, shallow is bad and deep is good, they are today referred to as dark green and light green.

21

What is deep ecology?

An approach to environmental ethics that sees all life forms as of value and human life as just one part of the biosphere. It rejects anthropomorphism.

22

What is shallow ecology?

An approach where the earth is cared for to make conditions better for humans.

23

What inspired deep ecology?

Aldo Leopold's book Sand County Almanac, which inspired a new approach to the environment and an interest in ecology as a science. The book is a mixture of natural history and philosophy, and calls for a new approach to the environment.

24

What quote does Aldo Leopold write about the environment?

"A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the bionic community. It is wron when it tends otherwise."

25

what did Aldo Leopold say we need to do?

He stated that we need to develop an ethics to deal with man's relationship to land, animal and plants, and to extend our social conscience from people to land, and that it is not right to see the natural world simply in terms of its economic worth to humans.

26

What did Aarne Naess say were the two ecology movements?

He basically stated that there are two ecology movements: the first is concerned mostly with pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the usefulness of the Earth for humans (anthropocentrisim), and the second is concerned with the richness, diversity and intrinsic value of all the natural world- this is deep ecology.

27

What did Aarne Naess argue about the environment?

He argued for the intrinsic value and inherent worth of the environment. According to Naess, every being, whether human, animal or vegetable, has an equal right o live and blossom. He called this ecosophy, which he defined as "By an ecosophy I mean a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium"

28

Why did Aarne Naess reject the idea that humans were more importance because they had a soul, use reason of have consciousness?

Argued that nature does not exist to serve humans; humans are simply a part of nature and all species have a right to exist for their own sake, regardless of their usefulness to humans. This view requires a complete change in how human relate to the natural world.

29

Why does Aarne Naess oppose the Christian view of Stewardship?

He opposes it as arrogant and depending on the idea of superiority which underlies the thought that humans exist to watch over nature like some sort of middleman between God and his creation.

30

What eightfold deep-ecology platform did Aarne Naess and George Sessions list?

1. All life has value in itself, independently of its usefulness to humans
2. Richness and diversity contribute to life's well-being and have value in themselves
3. Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs in a responsible way
4. The impact of humans in the world is excessive, and rapidly getting worse
5. Human lifestyles and population are key elements of this impact
6. THe diversity of life, including cultures, can flourish only with reduced human impact
7. Basic ideological, political, economic and technological structures must therefore change.
8. Those who accept the foregoing points have an obligation to participate in implementing the necessary changes and to do so peacefully and democratically.

31

What is ecosophy?

A word formed by contracting the phrase 'ecological philosophy'. It refers to philosophies which have an ecocentric or biocentric perspective such as deep ecology.

32

What does Naess propose that humans should do?

1. Radically reduce the Earth's population
2. Abandon all goals of economic growth
3. Conserve diversity of species
4. Live in small, self-reliant communities.
5. 'touch the Earth lightly."

33

What is the problem with the ideas proposes by Naess?

Many consider these ideas are simply not practical or realistic, especially as the human population is increasing rapidly and humans have just as much right to reproduce as any other species.

34

How does RIchard Sylvan respond to the problems with deep ecology?

As a result of these problems, he developed an alternative approach to deep ecology called deep green theory, which involves respect but not reverence for the environment.

35

What is Holistic?

An approach to the environment that considers a range of factors, including the importance of balance within the ecosystem.

36

What is James Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis?

A type of eco-holism, that challenges the view that humans are the most important species and sees humans as part of a living whole- Gaia. All the life forms of the planet are a part of Gaia- looking at the Earth from space, Lovelock saw not so much a planet of diverse life forms as a planet transformed by a self-regulating living system; it was almost a living being.

37

Where does the word Gaia come from?

THe word Gaia was first used by William Golding and comes from the name of the Greek goddess of the earth.

38

What did Lovelock argue about Gaia originally and why did he reject this?

In his early work, he argued that Gaia is regulated by the living organisms within it to maintain suitable conditions for growth and development- he later rejected this position and saw the regulation as conducted by the whole of Gaia, not just the living organisms.

39

What does Lovelock argue about Gaia and the maintenance of life?

He examined the fossil evidence which showed that climatic change had, in fact, taken place within a very narrow range so that life was never destroyed. Conditions seem to have favoured life; they are not random but intelligently organised- this he claims was not carried out by God, but by Gaia herself. however, God could be an explanation for the existence of Gaia and for maintaining her in existence.

40

Why does Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis oppose Darwinian idea of the survival of the fittist?

It says that the conditions on Earth are actually managed by Gaia herself. The world is not a result of chance but of self-enginerring.

41

Why does Lovelock argue that life cannot be destroyed?

There are many types of algae that are resistant to ultraviolet radiation, so even if the ozone layer were to be destroyed, life would continue and new life would evolve. On the Bikini atoll where nuclear bombs were tested, life has returned; the same may be said for the site of the Chernobyl disaster. Human life may be wiped out, but humans are just a part of Gaia and Gaia herself would survive without or presence. This theory challenges humans to change their perceptions and see themselves as part of a whole. If we abuse Gaia then we risk our own survival, as Gaia owes us nothing and we owe her our very existence.

42

Why is Lovelock more pessimistic in his latest work?

He is more pessimistic about climate change and our reluctance to confront it. He now considers that as the global temperatures rise higher and higher and there are more climatic disasters, the planet may not be able to recover as he previously thought. He advocates the rapid expansion of nuclear power to cut fossil fuel emissions.

43

What quote does Lovelock use to say we need to use nuclear power instead of fossil fuel emissions?

"Civilisation is in imminent danger and has to use nuclear energy now, or suffer the pain soon to be inflicted by our outraged planet."

44

How does Lovelock view the environment?

The Earth is a unified, holistic living entity with ethical worth, and in the long run the human race has no particular significance, but we are part of it and all the organisms on Earth are interdependent.

45

What is instrumental value?

When something's value lies in its usefulness for others

46

What is conservation ethics?

The ethics of the use, allocation, protection and exploitation of the natural world.

47

What does shallow ecology say about the value of the environment?

The only value in animals and plants is their extrinsic, instrumental value for humans. The are a means to an end- conservation is important for our welfare and that of future generations. It looks at the worth of the environment in terms of its utility or usefulness to humans. Conservation is a means to an end and is purely concerned with humanity.

48

What did shallow ecology lead to?

This is the ethic which formed the underling arguments for the three agreements reached in Rio in 1992 and for the Kyoto summit in 1997

49

What does shallow ecology say?

Shallow ecology or light green environmentalism restricts independent moral status to humans- it is anthropocentric. Biodiversity should be preserved, as particular species of animals and plants provide us with medicines, food and raw materials. So shallow ecology will accept that environmental damage can continue if humans benefit from it. Neither animals nor plants have rights, and any respect shown to them depends on how humans benefit.

50

Why would many people criticise shallow ecology?

For many people contact with the natural world is a part of the good life- part of having a good quality life- so swimming with dolphins, hill walking, seeing cherry trees in bloom are experiences that are valued for their own sake, not just as an instrumental good.

51

What does Michael La Bossiere suggest about human obligations to the environment?

He argues that species should be allowed to die out, as this is just part of the natural process of evolution- humans, he says, are a natural species and so any species that becomes extinct due to human activity is simply becoming naturally extinct. Humans have no obligation to prevent natural extinction, but this does not mean that humans should have a free hand in eradicating species, even when it would benefit humanity.

52

What did Peter Singer set a criteria for?

He used a set of criteria for moral status based on sentience. This means that moral worth includes animals- if not, we are guilty of 'specieism'. Our treatment of all humans and animals should be equal.

53

What does Peter Singer argue about the environment?

Singer is a preference utilitarian, and so believes that animals should receive equal preference. He argues that because plants are non-sentient there is a problem in trying to determine their interests in staying alive. He is not, therefore, convinced by the arguments of deep ecology and admits that, although the argument for the preservation of the environment may be strong, it is difficult to argue for its intrinsic value.

54

What is sentience?

The ability to feel pleasure and pain

55

What does Peter Singer advocate?

He advocated the preservation of 'world heritage sights', unspoilt parts of the world that acquire 'scarcity value' as they diminish over time. THeir preservation ensures their survival for future generations to enjoy. It should be let to future generations to decide whether they prefer unspoilt countryside or urban landscape. A tropical rain forest would be a good example of a world heritage site.

56

What is geocentric?

An approach to the environment that considers the geological nature and diversity of the Earth to be most important.

57

What would a Quantitative utilitarian argue about the environment?

Quantitative Utilitarianism looks as a situation and weights up whether the moral course of action is the maximisation of pleasure for present and future generations. Bentham would weigh up the amount of pleasure and pain of all those involved.

58

Why is the quantitative utilitarian approach questionable?

The assumption that pleasure is a uniform feature of different types of experience, and simply varies according to how much there is, is questionable.

59

What would a modern Utilitarian argue about the environment?

Modern Utilitarians would use a cost-benefit analysis, and this was the approach of David Pearce's Blueprint for a Green Economy.

60

What would a qualitative Utilitarian argue about the environment?

In the approach of qualitative Utilitarianism, Mill puts the enjoyment and study of nature at the top of his list of higher pleausres- and therefore environmental preservation is imperative.

61

What would a preference Utilitarian argue about the environment?

Preference Utilitarianism considers that the moral course of action is the maximisation of preference satisfaction for the current generation. Assuming that neglecting the environment has no major effect on the current generation, then the case for preserving the environment is weak.

62

What example does Peter Singer give?

He uses the example of building a hydroelectric dam across a gorge that would create employment, stimulate economic growth and provide a cost-effective energy supply but also have associated cost. Such costs would include the loss of a beauty spot favoured by walkers and a god place for white-water rafting and thd destruction of the habitat of some endagered spcies and wildlife.

63

How would a Utilitarian respond to Peter Singer's example?

For the preference Utilitarian, the preference satisfaction of a cheap source of electricity would outweigh the preferences of the walkers and the white-water rafters, as well as those of the animals and plants. However, a qualitative Utilitarian would consider the long-term interests of future generations.

64

What would Kantian ethics seem to suggest we should treat the environment?

Kant's ethical theory is generally seen as anthropocentric, based on the idea that rational nature alone has absolute and conditional value. It may seem that a theory of the king would allow the exploitation of the natural world; if only rational nature counts as an end in itself, then everything else may be used as a means to an end.

65

What does Kant say about the natural world?

Kant denies that domestic animals are only to be treated as tools and insists that there are moral limits on how we should use them. Animals should not be worn out and over-worked, nor should they be cast aside once they are too old. Kant thinks it is all right to kill animals for food, but killing for sport he sees as morally wrong. He also thinks that we have moral duties regarding the natural world and must not destroy ot/

66

Why does Kant argue this about the natural world?

This seems at odds with Kant's statements that we only have duties towards rational beings, but he explains that treating animals or the natural world badly makes us into cruel and callous people who will then treat other people badly. People who torment animals are likely to do the same to humans, according to Kant. So cruelty towards animals would not be condemned in its own right, but due to its consequences for humans it should be considered intrinsically wrong. According to Kant, a person cannot have good will unless he shows concern for the welfare of non-rational beings and values the natural world for its own sake.

67

How would the categorical imperative say we need to treat the natural world?

This would forbid much of the exploitation and pollution of the natural world, as it would be illogical to want everyone to be able to do so.

68

What does the neo-Kantian Paul Taylor argue?

He takes the view that respect for nature is a universal law for all rational beings- but he would not go so far as to accord animals and plants moral rights; instead he suggests giving them legal rights so that they are protected.

69

What is environmental virtue ethics?

It is a new approach which attempts to meet the challenge of a non-anthropocentric theory of values which looks at our relationship with the natural world more objective.

70

What does environmental virtue ethics says?

It does not ask why environmental preservation is important for humanity, but what characterizes an environmentally good person. It shifts the emphasis from duty and consequences to who we are and how we are to live in the natural world. It sees a virtuous life in nature as a necessary condition of human flourishing, eudaimonia. Extremes of behaviour are unhelpful both for society and the environment.

71

What is business ethics?

Business ethics considers the ethical relationship between businesses and consumers, between businesses and their employees. it also considers the impact of globalisation on the environment, and on society at large.

72

What does Milton Friedman believe the purpose of business in society is?

They see the main purpose of business to maximise profits for its owners or shareholders. In this case, only those activities which increase profits are to be encouraged as this is the only way that companies will survive.

73

What is necessary for employer/employee relationships to be successful?

There has to be a balance of interests: the employer wants to plan for the future of the business, make profits and keep employees motivated; the employee wants the best possible conditions and living stands. If employees are unhappy there will often be high turnover of staff, poor time-keeping and much absenteeism- as a result of this discontent profits will suffer.

74

What is the relationship between business and the environment?

Environmental responsibility is a vital component of a business strategy as it not only helps the environment, but it wins the trust of communities and gains the respect of the governments of the countries in which the business operates. All businesses impact on the environment: they emit pollution, they produce waste and use resources.

75

How has the Co-Operative acted in regards to environmental problems?

Some of its efforts for the environment include: the reduction by 86% of its CO2 emissions, use of 98% green electricity, and the ethical investment policy of the Co-operative bank. In 2007 they waere one of the winners of the Business commitment to the environment award for its response to global climate change.

76

What is the Anglo American Mining Company?

One of the twenty largest UK based companies, heavily involved in mining and quarrying- activities which have an immediate impact on the environemnt.

77

What three ares does the Anglo American Mining Company try to have a positive effect when carrying out its mining operations?

1. In the area where the mine is located, it carries out its operations with care and tries to improve the lives of local people
2. In the area immediately surrounding the mine, it is active in conservation and improvement
3. In the wider region around the mine, it contributes financially to local communities and helps generate new businesses

78

What is an example of the Anglo American Mining Company's environmental conservation projects?

At Tarmac's Langford Quarry in the Uk, where the company has created reed beds in streams and ponds surrounding the quarry. Reed beds are an endangered habitat and local people worked with Tarmac to plant the first 10,000 reeds.

79

What is globalisation?

Globalisation means the "reduction of the difference between one economy and another, so trade all over the world, both within and between different countires, becomes increasingly similar". This has been going on for a long time, and used to be quite a slow process, but in recent times it has spee up.

80

What are the reasons for the increase in the pace of globalisation?

1. Technological change- especially in communication technology
2. Transport is both faster and cheaper
3. Downregulation- an increase in privatisation, and countries now able to own businesses in other countries
4. Removal of capital exchange controls- money can now be moved easily from one country to another
5. Free trade- many barriers to trade have been removed, sometimes by grouping countries together such as the EU
6. Consumer tastes have changed and consumers are now more willing to try foreign products
7. Emerging markets in developing countries.

81

What problems does globalisation brings?

There are problems with jsutice towards poorer countries. Trade between countries is not totally fair, and some of the richest countries, such as the US, have very strong trade barriers to protect their national interests. It could be said that globalisation means that the interests of the shareholders are more important than the interests of the employees or the consumers, and it means that the poorest people have just 1.4% of the global income.

82

What are anti-globalisation movements?

Movements that campaign against the bad effects of globalisation. Examples include Amnesty International campaigns for a global human rights framework for business based on the UN Norms for business, the WCC campaigns for responsible lending and unconditional debt cancellation, there are also campaigns for ecological farming practices, the imposed privatization of public services, especially water.

83

Wht does Peter Singer say about globalisation?

Peter Singer lists the various global problems that we face and challenges us to develop a system of ethics and justice that can be accepted by all people, regardless of their race, culture or religion.

84

What are the benefits for a business behaving ethically?

1. Creates a better image for them, resulting in greater profit
2. Expensive and potentially embarrassing public relation disasters are avoided
3. If the business is seen to behave ethically it will recruit more highly qualified employees and this leads to better employee motivation as the employees are proud of their jobs

85

What are the downsides for a business behaving ethically?

1. Being ethical can increase costs for the business
2. It will have to pass on the same standards down the supply chain and this will mean no longer doing business with suppliers who are not prepared to meet the same standards
3. Society does not always have clear ethical standards so it is not always easy for a business to decide what to do
4. To be ethical a business may have to change its whole business practice and organisational culture

86

What does the Old Testament say about business ethics?

It contains laws and injunctions about the fair treatment of employees, e.g. Levicticus 19:13; about justice, honesty and fairness in business, "do not steal", and laws about just weight, e.g. Deuteronomy 25:13-15, giving the full amount for fair payment. The prophets, especially Amos, spoke out about the unfair treatment of the poor by the rich.

87

What does Protestant social teaching say about business ethics?

Protestant social teaching pulled in two different directions: first, the individualistic approach was concerned with the individual's calling and personal integrity, so a businessman could be praised for his charity; and second, was the concern about the competitive individualism of capitalism and the great social inequalities that it brough about, so social solutions were offered.

88

What is Catholic thought on business ethics?

Catholic thought was never very individualistic and very early on addressed the problems of modern industrial life. The encyclicals Rerum Novarum in 1891, Laborem Exercens in 1981, and Centisimus Annus in 1991 are fundamental on workers' rights. The idea of the common good, of solidarity, is a basic value in Catholic social teaching and has led the Catholic Church to criticise both communism and free market capitalism which acts against the poor and leads to the selfish pursuit of wealth.

89

How have Christian churches affected businesses?

Christian churches have increasingly, as organisations and as individual Christians within those churches, monitored and corrected the harm done by the businesses in which they are shareholders. This has led to changes in behaviour in areas such as environmental impact and marketing practice in the developing world.

90

What does Utilitarianism say about business ethics?

Utilitarianism considers the majority affected by a certain action- general welfare is important, and this is often seen as good business policy: the general good of the organisation is more important than that of individuals.

91

What would Utilitarianism say are the best business transactions?

The best business transactions are the ones in which the best result is achieved, when both business and consumer, employer and employee, shareholders and stakeholders are considered and benefited. This means that when making business decisions all options need considering- no one can just act on intuition if they wish to maximise utility.

92

Is utilitarianism a helpful approach to environmental ethics?

Economically, Utilitarianism would seem to be a good ethical approach to business, however, in many cases it is not simple and clear cut. Whatever the business goes, it is going to upset one group of people or another. Utilitarianism does not always help here.

93

What does Kantian ethics say?

Kant believed that morality should be grounded in reason. His cateogircal imperative held the people should act only according to maxims that they would be willing to see become universal norms, and that people should never be treated as a means to an end. his theory implies the necessity of trust, adherence to rules, and keeping promises.

94

How can Kantian ethics be applied to business ethics?

It applies well to both employees and consumers as it does not permit people to be treated as means to an end- even if that end is profit. Kantian ethics would also see a business as a moral community- employers and employees, stakeholders and shareholders, standing in a moral relationship with each other which would influence the way they treat each other. This seems to require that the work that employees are given is meaningful, and that businesses should be organised more democratically.

95

What does Kant's ethic mean about business laws?

Kant's universalisation means that business laws would have to be universal, e.g. no bribery or corruption, and this would have a beneficial effect on international business. However Kantian ethics has far more to offer to international business ethics as it shows how business can contribute to world peace. If business brings people together than the chance of peace among nations improves.

96

What does Virtue ethics say about businesses?

Virtue ethics from Aristotle shows that business cannot be separated from society- everyone is part of the larger community, the 'polis', the corporation, the neighbourhood, the city, the country or the world and our virtues are defined by that larger community. Business is part of that community.

97

What does virtue ethics suggest should take place in businesses?

Virtue is learnt through observation of others' behaviour- as far as business is concerned an individual cannot be ethical in a vacuum, but always as part of the ethical community. This applies to the employers as well as the employees who must show the virtues of character such as honesty, prudence, fairness and courage. THe virtues of co-operation seem to triumph over competition, but does this mean that the virtuous person in business will be the good corporate citizen, rather than the high-flier, wheeler-dealer, or the entrepreneurial innovator?

98

What does virtue ethics say about business ethics?

The virtues of a successful businessman and those of a good citizen must also be the same. In business, as in society, trustworthiness and co-operation are essential; even the most devious business dealings presuppose an atmosphere of trust, and competition is only possible within a context of general co-operation. Business is an essential part of society, not separate from it, and, as in society, living together is central, making a profit is just a means.

99

What did Also Leopold believe about the environment?

He believed that humans should stop being so fixated on itself and re-adjust its focus on its relationship with the land, the plants and the animals. He believed that we should stop seeing ourselves as 'dominators' of the land, rather we should view our existence as part of the moral community that includes that land and other inhabitants of the earth.

100

What quote does Aarne Naess use about deep ecology?

He argued that this approach tries to "preserve the integrity of the biosphere for its own sake"

101

What does Aarne Naess say about the Christian ideas of stewardship?

He opposes this as an "unnecessary arrogance"

102

What quote does Lovelock use to explain Gaia?

"For me, Gaia is a religious as well as a scientific concept, and in both spheres it is manageable...God and Gaia, theology and science, even physics and biology re not separate but a single way of thought"

103

Why does Richard Dawkins reject that Gaia hypothesis?

He rejects Lovelock's claims that all life "clubs together" for some sort of mutual advantage or benefit. He says that basis evolutionary theory disproves this and shows that in reality it is the survival of the fittest which determines which species, in response to altered conditions, will survive.

104

What does Lynn Margulis suggest about Darwin's perspective and the Gaia hypothesis?

She argues that they are compatible if the idea of symbiosis are accepted. She believes that at times, organisms will combine with other organisms in a symbiosis relationship in order to survive, whilst still remaining individual organisms, eg. pilot fish clean te teeth of sharks who in turn offer them protection. The idea of symbiosis is that living organisms will work together to ensure their survival and this brings closer together the ideas of Darwinish and those of the Gaia hypothesis.

105

What quote does Aristotle say about nature?

"She (nature) has made all animals for the sake of man"

106

What is St Francis' approach viewed as?

A form of Creation Spirituality, similar to other mystical writers like Mother Julian of Norwich. These approaches are seen as similar to the Gaia hypothesis because they see humanity as part of the whole creation rather than separate to it.

107

What is conservationism (shallow ecology)?

The theory that the environment's importance is related to its usefulness for humanity

108

What is deep ecology/libertarianism?

The belief that all life forms have intrinsic value.

109

What is ecological extension (eco-holism)?

The belief that all ecosystems and living things are interdependent

110

What is the Gaia hypothesis?

The hypothesis that suggests that the world's physical properties and the biosphere join together to form a complex interacting system.

111

What is creation spirituality?

A religious approach that emphasises that humankind is part of creation and that God can be found in all his creation.

112

What does Keith Tondeur say?

He believed that people should become more ethical in how they live their lives, especially how they relate to money and services.

113

What suggestions did Keith Tondeur give for living a more ethical lie?

1. Model yourself on good people
2. Life more simply, e.g. use public transport, recycle, grow your own produce, buy only what you need
3. Invest wisely and only with organisations that have ethical investment records
4. Find out about current affairs and the economy of the less developed world
5. Use your influence, e.g. writing to members of parliament about ethical issues
6. Choose the companies you buy from carefully- they should have good records on enviornmental issues and human rights.

114

What is micro-ethics?

This deals with the smaller details the constitute an ethical approach. iN this case it deals with the intentions, promises, obligations and individual rights from the relationship between businesses and consumers.

115

What did Milton Friedman claim was the social responsibility of businesses?

He claimed that "the social responsibility of business is to increase its profits". He claimed that social responsibility in business was a delusion; for him the only responsibility for corporations was to their stockholders.

116

What are the legal requirements for products sold by businesses?

they must be safe and contain appropriate guidance for their use. It must do what it is advertised to do.

117

Why is trust important for the relationship between consumers and businesses?

The trust that consumers place in a business is vital. A consumer must be able to trust that a product is safe, labelled correctly, and usable; if this is not the case, then the trust has been betrayed. The trust that a business places in the consumer must also be maintained, as goodwill is required when dealing with dissatisfaction and return of goods.

118

What are the bourgeoisie?

The middle-class industrial owners who have the proletariat working for them.

119

What are the Proletariat?

The workers and lower wage earners who depend on the bourgeoisie for employment.

120

What is Adam Smith's theory of free market?

His theory of free market competition explored the way that employers could best serve the interests of their employees, i.e. by employing them according to supply and demand. The community would prosper as employment would be high and people could live well on their wages. Smith saw the employer as having a responsibility to employ people fairly and justly and avoid selfishness. This relatinoship was based upon the need of the employer for labourers and the need of the employee for work.

121

What did Karl Marx believe about the natural of the relationship between employers and employees?

He disputed that the role was as equivocal; he believed that the employer (the bourgeoisie) could find almost anyone to do the work, but unless the worker (proletariat) agreed to work on the employer's terms then he would go without. Therefore the bourgeoisie control the market and the proletariat have no bargaining tools except their labour, which must be given if they are to live and survive.

122

What does the stakeholder theory suggest?

In the stakeholder theory it is generally accepted that the most undervalued member of the circle is the employee. An employee is, to a certain extent, only another commodity of the business that is linked to supply and demand and to profit, therefore other stakeholders usually overlook their perspectives.

123

What are the legal requirements and guidelines in the UK that govern the relationship between employers and employees?

An employee has the right to be safe at work and to be warned about potential risks; it is the responsibility of the employer to ensure that health and safety regulations are met.

124

What is whistleblowing?

Revealing to the public some sort of corruption or wrongdoing in business.

125

What does Ted Synder suggest about the relationship between employers and employees?

He supports Friedman and believes that profit is more important than general matters of principle. However, he believes that businesses do have an element of social responsibility towards their employees and stakeholders, but that this responsibility is secondary to the requirements to make profit. His research into emerging markets suggests that profiting by moving business outlets to less developed countries benefits the workers in those countries even more than it would have benefited those left behind in the Western nations.

126

How does Jagdish Bhagwati define globalisation?

As "...intergration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and spread of technology"

127

What quote does Eduardo Galeano say about globalisations?

"...the exploitation of the resources of the labourer nations will only benefit the global traders. They push them down so they can't stand by themselves"

128

What did Paul Taylor suggest about animals and plants?

He suggests that animals and plants should not be afforded moral rights as they aren't rational beings, but instead ought to be given legal rights so that they are protected and preserved. This approach would seem to be one that would satisfy the requirements of Kantian ethics.

129

Why would the Utilitarianism view that environment as have only instrumental value in its use for humanity?

Whilst Utilitarianism is not strictly anthropocentric, it is consequentialist and therefore looks at the consequences of actions for humanity and its survival. A Utilitarian would not value Mount Kilimanjaro or the Grand Canyon as anything more than something that humans take pleasure from and therefore is only of instrumental value.

130

Why can it be difficult to apply Kantian ethics to business ethics?

It is difficult to approach most areas of business from a Kantian perspective, as universalising actions and ensuring that people are valued are not necessarily profitable or even desirable.