Environmental and Nutritional Diseases I Flashcards Preview

PBD II Exam 1 > Environmental and Nutritional Diseases I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental and Nutritional Diseases I Deck (62):
1

single leading global cause of heath loss

undernutrition

2

leading cause of death in developed countries

ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease

3

half leading cause of death in developing countries

infectious disease

4

EIDs

emerging infectious diseases
-Dx caused by newly evolved strains or organisms
-Dx caused by pathogens endemic in other species that enter human popupalation
-Dx caused by pathogens present in human populations but show recent increase in incidence

5

highest mortality of children under 5

malnutrition and infections in east, central, western africa

6

infections leading to childhood deaths

pneumonia
diarrhea
malaria
measles
neonatal

7

diarrhea

leading cause of death in africa
-loss of water

E.coli
campilobacter
rotavirus

8

greenhouse gases

carbon dioxide
methane
ozone

9

toxicology

science of poisons
-includes radiation and heat

10

definition of poison

quantitative concept dependent on dosage

11

xenobiotics

exogenous chemicals in env in air, water, food, that may be absorbed into body through inhalation, ingestion, skin contact

12

detoxification

metabolized to inactive water-soluble products

13

phase 1 reactions

hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction

14

phase 2 reactions

glucuronidation, sulfation, methylation, conjugation with gultathione

form water-soluble compounds that are readily excreted

15

cytochrome p450

CYP
-important catalysis of phase 1 reactions

ER of liver

heme-containing enzyme

either activate or detoxify xenobiotics
-ROS as byproduct

16

CCl4

carbon tetrachloride
-CYP convert to toxic trichloromethyl free radical

17

benzo-alpha-pyrene

carcinogen in cigarette smoke

CYP converts to DNA-binding metabolite

18

CYP inducers

environmental chemicals
drugs
smoking
alcohol
hormones

19

activity of CYP inducers

binding nuclear receptors that heterodimerize with RXR

-associates with promoter elements in 5' region of CYP gene

receptors:
aryl hydrocarbon
PPA
CA
PX

20

CYP activity

variation among individuals

21

outdoor air pollutants

ozone
nitrogen dioxide
sulfur dioxide
acid aerosols
particulates

22

smog

consists of the 6 outdoor air pollutants

23

ozone

high in atmosphere - absorbs dangerous UV

ground level is a pollutant

24

ground level ozone

formed from nitrogen oxides and organic compounds in sunlight

toxicity mediated by free radicals

injure respiratory tract - type I alveolar cells

dangerous for those with asthma and emphysema

25

source of sulfur dioxide

power plants burning coal, oil, copper smelting, paper mills

-converted to sulfuric acid and sulfuric trioxide - burning sensation in nose and throat

26

particulate matter

soot
-from oil fired power plants and diesel exhaust

London in 50s

27

size of dangerous particulates

less than 10 um in diameter
-inhaled into alveoli and phagoctosed
-release of mediators for inflammation

28

carbon monoxide

incomplete oxidation of carbonaceous materials

-systemic asphyxiant

200x greater affinity for hemoglobin than O2

29

systemic hypoxia and CO poisoning

20-30% Hg saturated

30

unconscious/death and CO poisoning

60-70% Hg saturated

31

Dx of CO poisoning

measure carboxyHg levels in blood

32

acute CO poisoning

generalized cherry-red color of the skin

33

most common indoor air pollutant

tobacco smoke

34

wood smoke

irritant, predispose to lung infection, may contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

35

bioaerosols

microbial agents that cause infection
-legionaires, viral pneumonia, common cold

allergens
-dust mite, fungi, molds

36

radon

radioactive has from uranium
-in soil and in homes

-lung ca in uranium miners

37

formaldehyde

manufacture of building materials
-refugees of environmental disasters

38

low levels of lead

in children significant negative effects

39

heavy metals

lead
arsenic
mercury
cadmium

40

subclinical lead poisoning

less than 10 ug/dL

low intellectual capacity
behavioral problems
hyperactivity
organization skills

41

half life of lead

in bone 20-30 years

42

neurotoxicity of lead

inhibit neurotransmitters - disrupt Ca homeostasis

43

Pb and decreased Hg synthesis

40

44

Pb and death

150

45

Pb and encephalopathy, nephropathy, frank anemia

around 100

46

Pb and changes in nerve conductdion

20

47

Pb inhibits two enzymes

delta-aminolevulinic acid and ferrochelatase

48

ferrochelatase

incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin

(-) by lead

results in microcytic, hypochromic anemia

49

Hg and Pb

microcytic, hypochromic anemia

50

diagnosis of lead poisoning

blood levels of lead and free red cell protoporphyrin

51

ringed sideroblasts

Pb inhibition of ferrochelatse
-results in red cell precursors with iron-laden mitochondria detected with prussian blue stain

52

Pb and brain

demyelination
edema
astroctyte proliferation
necrosis of cortical neurons

53

peripheral demyelinating neuropathy

from lead poisoning

extensor mm first (wrist drop)
followed by peroneal mm (foot drop)

54

Pb and kidneys

chronic interstitial fibrosis
-saturnine gout

55

basophilc stipling

often with Pb intoxication

56

forms of mercury

metallic (elemental)
inorganic (mercuric chloride)
organic (methyl)

57

main source of mercury exposure

contaminated fish
-methyl mercury

and vapors from metallic mercury in dental amalgams

58

skin cancers and hyperpigmentation

with arsenic

squamous and basal cell carcinomas

not sun exposed surfaces
-pals of hands and soles of feet

59

cadmium intoxication

food exposure

itai-itai (ouch ouch) - in rice in Japan
-osteoporosis and osteomalacia

not directly genotoxic - but produces ROS

60

arsenic

royal poison

soil and water, herbicides

61

most toxic arsenic

arsenic trioxide

62

arsenic ingestion

GI, cardiovascular, CNS problems
-interfers with Ox Phos