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SP 16 - Path Test 2 > Environmental Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental Disease Deck (70)
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1

What types of agents are we responsible for knowing

Chemical Agents
Physical Agents
Radiation Injury
Nutritional Diseases

2

Occupational Medicine

A field that relates to injuries in the workplace

3

What US agencies are involved in regulating environmental hazards?

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA)
Consumer Products Safety Comission

4

How can chemical agents cause problems?

Inhalation
Ingestion
Injection
Absorption through the skin

5

What are the factors that effect chemical injuries?

CLADME:
Concentration
Liberation
Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Excretion

6

The more potent the drug...

The more likely it is to cause an adverse reaction

7

What are some minor adverse reactions to therapeutic agents

Rashes
Upset GI

8

What are some major adverse reactions to therapeutic agents?

Anaphylaxis
Blood clots
Arrhythmias
Hematologic reactions

9

What levels of aspirin are fatal?

2-4 gms in kids
10-30 gms in agults

10

What are the acute adverse reactions to Aspirin

Its metabolic
-first, there is respiratory alkalosis, followed by metabolic acidosis

11

What levels of aspirin lead to chronic Aspirin issues?

3 gms a day

12

Long term hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives can lead to what?

Increased risk for cancer, strokes, and blood clots

13

What is the mechanism of lead poisoning enzymatically?

Lead has a high affinity for enzymes involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin
It blocks or hinders the incorporation of iron into the molecule - patients develop microcytic hypochromatic anemia

14

How and where does the majority of lead go?

85% is taken up by the bones and teeth
Lead competes with calcium and interferes with the remodeling process - Pb can't be removed by osteoclasts, and bone will become hyperdense

15

How does Lead affect the nervous system

In kids: it can cause toxicity of the CNS, reducing IQs and develop learning diabilities
In adults: Lead to peripheral neuropathies, including wristdrop and footdrop

16

How does Lead affect the kidneys

It damages renal tubules, which can lead to interstitial fibrosis and renal failure

17

How does lead affect the GI tract

Causes severe, poorly localized, colicky (abdominal) pain

18

What is the maximum allowable lead blood level, according to the CDC?

5 ug/dL

19

What are the classes of Drugs of Abuse?

Sedative-Hypnotics
CNS stimulants
Opioids
Hallucinogens
Inhalants
Nonprescription drugs

20

What is a major side effect of MDMA that we might see?

Bruxism

21

What drugs fall under the sedative class?

Alcohol
Barbituates
Benzodiazopines

22

What drugs fall under CNS stimulants?

Cocaine
Amphetamines

23

What drugs fall under Opioids?

Heroine
Morphine
Methadone
Codeine

24

What drugs fall under Hallucinogens?

LSD
PCP
Mescaline
MDMA

25

Abrasion

A wound produced by scraping or rubbing, leading to removal of a superficial layer of skin

26

Contusion

aka a bruise
A wound caused by a blunt object, doesn't break the skin, but may lead to damage to blood vessels and extravasation of blood in the tissues

27

Laceration

A tear in tissues - usually irregular with jagged edges

28

What are the important factors affecting the clinical significance of burns

Percentage of total body surface involved
Depth of burn
Potential for internal injuries from inhalation of fumes or hot gases
Age of the patient
Speed and quality of treatment

29

What are the surface area percentages of the body?

Head & Neck = 9%
Trunk Front = 18%
Trunk Back = 18%
Legs = 18%
Arms = 9% each
Hands = 1% each
Perineum (crotch) = 1%

30

Patients are in grave risk if how much bsa is covered?

50%