Flashcards in Environmental Disease Deck (70)
What types of agents are we responsible for knowing
A field that relates to injuries in the workplace
What US agencies are involved in regulating environmental hazards?
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA)
Consumer Products Safety Comission
How can chemical agents cause problems?
Absorption through the skin
What are the factors that effect chemical injuries?
The more potent the drug...
The more likely it is to cause an adverse reaction
What are some minor adverse reactions to therapeutic agents
What are some major adverse reactions to therapeutic agents?
What levels of aspirin are fatal?
2-4 gms in kids
10-30 gms in agults
What are the acute adverse reactions to Aspirin
-first, there is respiratory alkalosis, followed by metabolic acidosis
What levels of aspirin lead to chronic Aspirin issues?
3 gms a day
Long term hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives can lead to what?
Increased risk for cancer, strokes, and blood clots
What is the mechanism of lead poisoning enzymatically?
Lead has a high affinity for enzymes involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin
It blocks or hinders the incorporation of iron into the molecule - patients develop microcytic hypochromatic anemia
How and where does the majority of lead go?
85% is taken up by the bones and teeth
Lead competes with calcium and interferes with the remodeling process - Pb can't be removed by osteoclasts, and bone will become hyperdense
How does Lead affect the nervous system
In kids: it can cause toxicity of the CNS, reducing IQs and develop learning diabilities
In adults: Lead to peripheral neuropathies, including wristdrop and footdrop
How does Lead affect the kidneys
It damages renal tubules, which can lead to interstitial fibrosis and renal failure
How does lead affect the GI tract
Causes severe, poorly localized, colicky (abdominal) pain
What is the maximum allowable lead blood level, according to the CDC?
What are the classes of Drugs of Abuse?
What is a major side effect of MDMA that we might see?
What drugs fall under the sedative class?
What drugs fall under CNS stimulants?
What drugs fall under Opioids?
What drugs fall under Hallucinogens?
A wound produced by scraping or rubbing, leading to removal of a superficial layer of skin
aka a bruise
A wound caused by a blunt object, doesn't break the skin, but may lead to damage to blood vessels and extravasation of blood in the tissues
A tear in tissues - usually irregular with jagged edges
What are the important factors affecting the clinical significance of burns
Percentage of total body surface involved
Depth of burn
Potential for internal injuries from inhalation of fumes or hot gases
Age of the patient
Speed and quality of treatment
What are the surface area percentages of the body?
Head & Neck = 9%
Trunk Front = 18%
Trunk Back = 18%
Legs = 18%
Arms = 9% each
Hands = 1% each
Perineum (crotch) = 1%