J-waves/Osborn waves are seen in:
characteristic EKG finding of hypothermia
In treating hypothermia, at what temperature should you initiate resuscitation meds and defibrillation attempts?
T > 30C
What are treatments for high altitude pulmonary edema? (4)
descent acetazolamide dexamethasone nifedipine
pressor to use in heat stroke
dobutamine - supports BP and HR while keeping vessels dilated for heat dissipation
when should you consider active rewarming measures
cardiovascular instability, T < 32ºC, or inadequate response to passive re-warming methods
order of tissues with resistance to electricity
Bone > fat > tendon > skin > muscle > nerve.
how do you grade frostbite injuries?
1st degree- numbness and erythema with no tissue loss
2nd - superficial blistering, with clear to milky fluid, surrounded by edema and erythema
3rd - deeper blisters with blood containing fluid (leave blisters alone)
4th - affects muscle and bone.
mild vs moderate vs severe hypothermia
(definitions and treatment)
mild 32-35: active external warming
moderate 28-32: +active core (bladder, gastric lavage)
severe < 28: ECMO, pleural lavage
treatment of shivering