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Flashcards in Environmental, Social, and Economic Issues Deck (37)
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A speculative office building  probably would  not be built if the  developer  discovered that


A.    all of the catchment  area was not served by arte­rial streets

B.     the site consisted of mostly sandy soil with a 6ft (1.8 m) top layer of expansive clay

C.    the vacancy rate of office space in the city was three  times the national average

D.    the neighborhood community  objected to the sight  of parking lots

The answer is C.


The vacancy  rate in the region or community is the one fac­tor that would most affect the financial success of the project and the decision to build.


A speculative office building depends on a wide catchment area, and a lack of arterial roads in some portions of it would most likely not affect the marketability of the project. If  there  was strong  objection  to  parking  lots,  the  visual impact  could be minimized  through  landscaping, or park­ ing  could  be  placed  underground or  in  a  well-designed parking structure.


Choice B is incorrect because either a relatively thin layer of clay only 6ft (1.8 m) thick could be removed and replaced with better soil, or the foundations  could be placed on the good underlying  layer of sandy soil.


Which of the following would probably NOT be con­sidered an element of a city's image?


A.   a group of houses

B.   a freeway

C.   a neighborhood bar

D.   an area with a high concentration of hospitals

The answer is A.


A freeway can  be  considered a path,  an edge,  or both, depending on its function. It is a path to the person travel­ ing on it. It is an edge if it divides a district or encloses an area.

A popular neighborhood gathering spot would probably be considered a node because it can be entered and because it is a center of interest. It would most likely be the center of a neighborhood district as well.


An area with many hospitals would be viewed as the hospi­ tal district. This image would be reinforced because of the likely support services, such as doctors' offices and phar­ macies, that would also be nearby.


A group of houses by themselves would have little image unless they formed an edge or surrounded a park or similar node.


What is New Urbanism?

An urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.


One  of  the  hallmarks   of  the   plan   developed   by Clarence Stein and Henry Wright in 1928 for the town of Radburn,  New Jersey, was the use of underpasses  to allow pedestrian traffic to pass under automobile  traffic. This was intended to prevent accidents and keep pedestrian paths separate from vehicular paths. Which other "new town" fea­ tures this separation  of pedestrian and vehicular traffic?


A.   Beverly Hills, California

B.     Seaside, Florida

C.   Reston, Virginia

D.   Chestnut  Hill, Pennsylvania

The answer is C.


The plan for Radburn,  New Jersey, developed  by Stein and Wright in 1928, was one ofthe first to take on the challenge of planning for both pedestrians and drivers. Although only one underpass  was actually constructed in Radburn,  the concept of underpasses  for pedestrian  traffic is still associ­ ated with this plan. Stein and Wright attributed the idea for the  underpasses   to  Frederick  Law Olmstead  and  Calvert Vaux, who utilized changes in grade to separate greenspace from traffic paths in Central Park in New York City: Reston, Virginia, features a series of underpasses  that promote travel on foot throughout the community:


City planning in the United States has been strongly influenced by


I.    the Columbian Exposition of 1893

II.   the Ordinance of 1785

III. [Enfant's plan of Washington, DC

IV:    Gamier's dte industrielle

V    the Industrial Revolution


A.    I, III, and V only

B.   I, II, and IV only

C.   I, II, IV, and V only

D.   I, II, III, IV, and V

The answer  is C.


The Columbian Exposition revived interest in city planning and  showed   that   desirable  results  could  be  achieved through organized efforts. It also prompted many cities to plan civic centers and parkways. The Ordinance of 1785 started the rectangular survey system, which reinforced the idea of grid planning that began with the plan for Philadel­ phia.  Gamiers  plan  was  developed  in  response  to  the Industrial Revolution and was the first  to use the idea of zoning.  The  Industrial  Revolution  prompted   a  reform movement that led to many ideas about planning, many of which influenced urban design in  Europe and the United States.


Although [Enfant's plan was widely praised and publicized as a major planning effort, its Baroque planning approach was never widely adopted.


What was the Ordinance of 1785?

The Ordinance of 1785:

  • started the rectangular survey system, which reinforced the idea of grid planning that began with the plan for Philadelphia.  


Which  of the automobile  entrances  to the site shown is most desirable?


A. entrance A

B. entrance B

C. entrance C

D. entrance D

The anser is B


The most desierabel entrance location is the one located in the collector street, Entracne B. Entrance A is too close to another intersection street. Entrance C intersects the street at an angle that is unsafe. Entrance D intersects and arterial street. Although sometimes possible, this situation should be avoided, especially if it is as close to an intersection as this one. 


What was the significant planning concept for Paris, France?



Which parking  configuration  is most  difficult for a driver to maneuver within?

A.     90°

B.      60°

C.      45°

D.      30°

The answer is A.


The  most   difficult  parking  configuration  for  a  driver . to maneuver within is a 90° angle arrangement.  This is the only  parking configuration  listed  that  allows a  two-way travel lane, and  it is the most efficient of the four choices, allowing   about  11  cars  to  park  for  each  100  lineal  ft (30.5 m) of curb.  However, as a driver is pulling in or back­ ing out of the space, he or she must be aware of traffic com­ ing from either direction, and drivers must make a 90° tum  into the parking space.


Both 45°  angle and  60° angle configurations  are relatively economical  and   allow  easy  access  to  and  from  parking spaces. They permit  only one-way traffic aisles. A 45° angle configuration will allow approximately  eight  cars to park for each 100 lineal ft (30.5 m) of curb. A 60° angle config­ uration allows about nine cars to park for each 100 lineal ft (30.5 m) of curb.


30°  angle   configurations are  the  least  efficient, allowing only about 5 cars to park within each 100 lineal ft (30.5 m) of curb.  They permit  only a one-way traffic lane,  and  are seldom used because  they are uneconomical.


What was the significant planning concept for Savannah, Georgia?


Grid system


What was the City Beautiful movement?

A reform philosophy of North American architecture and urban planning that flourished during the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of introducing beautificationand monumental grandeur in cities. The movement, which was originally associated mainly with Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Washington, D.C., promoted beauty not only for its own sake, but also to create moral and civic virtue among urban populations.


What was the significant planning concept for Philidelphia Pennsylvania?

Grid, based on survey grid


Which  of the following statements about Gothic architecture is FALSE?


A.   The use of flying buttresses made possible more fenestration in the nave walls.

B.   A Gothic arch exerts less thrust than a rounded arch spanning the same distance.

C.   The plan of a Gothic cathedral usually had to be based on a square bay.

D.   A ribbed vault is comprised of three pairs of diagonal arches per bay.

The answer is C.


Gothic architecture rose to prominence in the 1100s through 1300s and was a popular style of building for reli­ gious structures.  Well-known examples include  Amiens Cathedral, the Abbey Church of St. Denis, Notre Dame, the Chanes Cathedral, and the Reims Cathedral, all in France, and the Canterbury Cathedral, St. Albans  Cathedral, and Salisbury Cathedral, all in England. Buildings in the Gothic style were also constructed late in this period in Spain and Germany.


The most easily recognizable feature of Gothic architecture is the pointed arch. This new form made it possible to con­ struct a vault with a lighter structural shell than was possi­ ble using semicircular arches. A pointed  arch  exerts less thrust than a rounded arch of similar size.


In Gothic architecture, the thrust of the arches was coun­ teracted by massive flying buttresses constructed  on  the exteriors of buildings. These buttresses allowed the exterior walls to be thinner and made possible larger  amounts of tracery and fenestration than previous construction meth­ ods had.


A ribbed vault is comprised of three arches oriented diago­ nally, transversely, and longitudinally; the space  between the arches is filled in with a thin shell of stone.


While the semicircular arch worked well only with square plan  forms, the  pointed arch allowed vaults to  be  con­ structed over bays that were square, rectangular, or oddly shaped.


Explain the Garden City planning method.

A method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.


What was Cité Industrielle?

Urban plan designed by Tony Garnier and published in 1917 under the title of Une Cité Industrielle. It represents the culmination of several philosophies of urbanism thatwere the outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Europe.


The Cité Industrielle was to be situated on a plateau in southeastern France, with hills and a lake to the north and a river and valley to the south. The plan takes into consideration all the aspects necessary to running a Socialist city. It provides separate zones for separate functions, a concept later found in such new towns (see new town) as Park Forest, Ill., and Reston, Va. These zones—residential, industrial, public, and agricultural—are linked by location and circulation patterns, both vehicular and pedestrian. The public zone, set on the plateau much in the manner of the Hellenistic acropolis, is composed of the governmental buildings, museums, and exhibition halls and large structures for sports and theatre. Residential areas are located to take best advantage of the sun and wind, and the industrial district is accessible to natural power sources and transportation. The “old town” is near the railroad station to accommodate sightseers and tourists. A health centre and a park are located on the heights north of the city, and the cemetery to the southwest. The surrounding area is devoted to agriculture. The plan itself is clearly in the Beaux-Arts tradition, tempered by a natural informality possibly derived from the ideas of the Austrian town planner Camillo Sitte. The plan lacked jails, courthouses, and hospitals, as Garnier believed that they would not be necessary under Socialism.


What was the significant planning concept for Welwyn Garden City, England?

Garden City, Ebenezer Howard


In order to quickly gather and document information for the restoration  of a historic building with a large interior dome, the architect should  recommend  that the client use


A.   field measurements

B.    false-color imaging

C.   photogrammetry

D.   laser scanning

The answer is D.


Laser scanning  would   be  the   best  choice  because   this method  could  quickly make the required  remote measure­ ments from just a few points (or possibly even one). Physi­ cal access to any part of the dome would not be required.


Photogrammetry would  take more  time and  might  require that  control  points  be placed  on the dome  and hand sur­ veyed to establish a base coordinate  system. Standard  field measurements taken by hand would be very slow, would not be very accurate,  and  would  require extensive scaffolding. False-color imaging would  not be at all appropriate  because this type of analysis provides no information  on field mea­ surements.


Designing  environments so individuals can maintain a comfortable  distance between them applies the psycho­ logical principles of


A.    territoriality

B.  density

C.   behavior settings

D.   personal space

The answer is D.


The concept of personal space, as developed by Edward T. Hall, states  that four basic distances can be understood to exist in the study of human behavior, each one appropriate for different private and social situations. These are the inti­ mate distance, the personal distance, the social  distance, and the public  distance.


Study Note: Review the theories of personal space as described  by Edward T. Hall in The Hidden Dimension and by Robert Sommer in Personal Space: The Behavioral Basis of Design.


Terms to Know

behavior setting: a particular place, with definable bound­ aries and  objects within the place, in which a standing pattern of behavior occurs at a particular time

density: the number of people per unit area

proxemics:  a term coined by anthropologist Edward T. Hall and  now used to describe the study of the spatial requirements of humans and the effects of population density on behavior, communication, and social interac­ tion

territoriality: a behavioral system in which a person, ani­ mal, or group lays claim to an area and defends it against others


If the contour interval on the map shown is 2ft  (2m), what is the slope between points A and B?

he answer is B.


Using  the   scale  on  the  drawing,  the  horizontal  distance between  the two points is about 15ft (15m). The slope is the vertical  distance  divided by the horizontal distance.


In estimating the value of a parcel of land, any of the following approaches  may be used EXCEPT the


A.   assessment approach

B.   income approach

C.   market approach

D.   cost approach

The answer is A.


There is no land valuation method known as the assessment approach.  Assessment is the official valuation of property for the purpose of levying a tax. The other three answers are the various ways assessments can be made initially


Social contact  and interaction  in  a picnic pavilion would be promoted most by


A.   making the dimensions of the pavilion small enough that the anticipated number of users would cross into each other's "personal distance"

B.            designing benches around the support columns so people would have a place to sit and talk

C.   separating the cooking and serving area from the dining area and entrance

D.   providing a variety of informal spaces of differ­ent sizes, locations, and uses

The answer is D.


A variety of informal spaces would promote social contact. Choice A is incorrect because forcing too many people within close, personal space would be counterproductive. People would become uncomfortable and defensive. Choice B is incorrect because the orientation of the benches would be sociofugal, requiring that people face away from each other. Choice Cis  incorrect because the cooking and serv­ ing area would be one of the most popular gathering spaces and a destination for people. Here, people could watch food being  prepared,  serve  themselves, and  informally meet other people.


A 50-year-old warehouse that shows no obvious signs of deterioration is to be remodeled  as an  office building. Which of the following areas should be most carefully eval­ uated at the start  to help determine  the projects feasibility? (Choose the four that apply)


A.   ceiling heights

B. fire protection  systems

c.  foundation

D.   roof

E.    structural framework

F.       windows

The answer is C, D, E, and F


The foundation, roof, structural  framework,  and  windows represent major components of a building. If they are inad­ equate or in poor condition,  they could be too expensive to repair or replace while maintaining  project feasibility


The ceiling heights  of a warehouse would  be sufficient for an office. Fire protection systems would probably be nonex­ istent  or would  have to be upgraded  in any event, so this would be less of an initial concern.


What and when was the Columbian Exposition?

The Columbian Exposition:

  • revived interest in city planning
  • Showed that  desirable  results could  be achieved through organized efforts.
  • Prompted many cities to plan civic centers and parkways. 


A portion of a recreation area is shown. Which loca­ tion would be best for the site of a restaurant and visitor's center?


The answer  is B.


Location 1 has a good view, but at the top of a hill it would be very windy: In addition, access to the lake would be dif­ ficult due to the steep slope from this site to the water. Loca­ tion  3  is  in  a  drainage  pattern;   this  alone  makes  it unsuitable for development, but  this area  would  also be cool due to its position at the bottom of two slopes and in the path of wind coming through the valley: Location 4 has a good view, has easy access to the lake, and could be used for development, but the slightly steeper slope might com­ plicate grading and site work. Location 2 has level ground and a good view of and access to the lake, and its location on a south-facing slope would capture the sun and mini­ mize the detrimental effects of the wind.


What was the significant planning concept for Washington D.C.?




During preservation  of an 1880s farmhouse  that was the  childhood home  of a  prominent  state  governor,  the owners   discover  that   termites   have  attacked   the  large wooden beam supporting the first floor. The damage is par­ ticularly bad at the ends of the beam, where the beam rests in pockets  in the masonry foundation  walls. Which  of the following repairs would be the best choice in this situation?


A.      Support the beam with a row of metal columns.

B.    Remove  the beam and replace it with a steel or laminated wood member sized to adequately carry the floor loads.

C.    Drill  through  the beam, insert reinforcing, and fill the voids with injectable epoxy.

D.   Sister additional structural members to the beam.

The answer is C.


The key word in this question is preservation. A preservation project dictates that the least amount  possible be done to stabilize a building and  that any interventions be made as invisibly  as  possible.  The  best  (although   not  necessarily most economical) choice for repairing  this beam would be to drill through the solid part of the wood into the damaged area,  insert  reinforcing  (usually  a  plastic  rod),  and  then inject epoxy resin through  the drilled holes. The resin will fill the termite-damaged areas as well as the drilled  holes and bind to the wood.  This process is known  to preserva­ tionists as consolidation. The repair will meet or exceed the original  strength   of  the  member,  and  the  resin  can  be sanded and finished to match the surrounding wood.


Which of the following contour line signatures represents a ridge?

The answer is B


Contours  are  used  to  represent  three-dimensional  land­ forms in a two-dimensional drawing. Ridges and valleys are frequently  confused;  the contours  point  toward  the lower elevation for a ridge and toward the higher elevation for a valley.


Hills are generally easy to spot as they are represented  with concentric  circles (or near circles), but the elevations must be checked to determine whether the landform is a hill or a depression.  The elevations near the center are higher for a hill and lower for a depression. Contours  with very regular spacing usually represent  some human-made element  on the site, such  as a street  with  a curb and gutter.


Which of the following is a frequent cause of founda­tion problems?


A.   extensive underground rock formations just below the surface

B.     a 5 ft (1.5 m) water table

C.   expansive clay and organic soil

D.   all of the above

The answer is D.


All the conditions  listed would  create unusual  excavation and foundation problems.


Which  of the  following cities was the first in  the United States to establish a "historic district" to preserve endangered properties?


A.   Williamsburg, Virginia

B.   Savannah, Georgia

C.   New Orleans, Louisiana

D.   Charleston, South Carolina

The answer is D.


Charleston, South  Carolina, invented  the concept  of the "historic district" in 1931 as a response to attrition of its aging building stock through theft, demolition, and neglect. The historic district designation was added to the zoning ordinance to make it legally enforceable, and an architec­ tural review board was established to review  plans for all work within the historic area.


New Orleans designated the Vieux Carre a historic district in 1937, adopting the mechanisms instituted in Charleston. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, pan  of Williamsburg, Virginia, was acquired and restored, preserved, or  recon­ structed by what is now the Colonial Williamsburg Foun­ dation, led by Reverend WA.R. Goodwin and financed by john  D.  Rockefeller. After   the  restoration,  the  city  of Williamsburg  designated  areas  surrounding  the  historic area  as  architectural  review districts  and  the  city  now requires  that   modifications  and  new  construction   be approved by the architectural review board. In the 1960s, the people of Savannah began revival of the Pulaski Ward.


What was Gamier's Plan?

Gamiers  plan  was:

  • Adeveloped  in  response  to  the Industrial Revolution and was the first  to use the idea of zoning.