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1

During the  programming phase, a proposed build­ings height would be most influenced by the decision to use

A.    daylighting

B.   indirect lighting

C.   access floor systems

D.   interstitial spaces

The answer is D.

Solution

Interstitial spaces between occupied floors require the most additional height per floor and the most total building height because they must be high enough to accommodate a person accessing the space for maintenance duties, as well as the ducts and equipment servicing the occupied spaces below.

 

Daylighting, indirect lighting, and access floor systems would add only a few feet, at most, to each floor.

2

In a contemporary  building, the historic concept of formality could  be most readily conveyed by the  design principle known as

A. rhythm

B. symmetry

c.  proportion

D.   emphasis

The answer is B.

Solution

Throughout the history of architecture, symmetry has been one of the major design principles used to represent for ­Rhythm, proportion, and emphasis are other design princi­ ples that are used to connote formality, but often in more subtle ways than symmetry.

3

The net-to-gross ratio for a small retail store has been estimated by the archtiect to be 80%. The client has told the archtiect that 60,000sf of sales and storage space are required. The architect should plan for a building of ___________sf. Fill in the blank

The answer is 75,000sf

The net-to-gross ratio is found by dividing the net usable area by the gross area, which includes  circulation areas, mechanical rooms, and similar ancillary areas. The desired net usable area is given and the net-to-gross ratio is known, so the needed gross area can be estimated by dividing the net area by the ratio expressed as a decimal.

 

4

Which of the  programming  diagrams shown  would best record required  space relationships  just prior to initial space planning?

The answer is B.

Solution

Option  B illustrates  a bubble diagram. These  diagrams  are often used to indicate required adjacency relationships and priorities of relationships. Although it is often derived from the matrix chart shown  in option A, the bubble  diagram is best for showing relationships  just prior  to space planning, because the relative sizes and positions of the bubbles begin to give an indication  of spatial relationships and sizes of the various spaces needed.

 

Option C is a flow diagram, as indicated  by the arrows. This would  be used as a scheduling  chart  or to show  a flow of materials or some other kind  of process from one point  to another. Option D shows a block diagram, which represents the first results  of spatial  organization  based  on  an  adja­ cency  diagram.  It is  not  the  correct  answer  because  the question asks which diagram would be best just prior to the start of space planning.

5

"A house is a machine  for living in," reflects the idea that, like a machine, a house should be functional and serve humans.  This expression summarizes  the philosophy of

 

A.   Marcel Breuer

B.     Mies van der Rohe

C.   Le Corbusier

D.   Buckminster Fuller

The answer is C.

Solution

Le Corbusier  made  this statement  to reflect his theory  of modernity: Along with  many  other  architects  of the  time, Le Corbusier  distanced himself from the past and based his designs on functionality without ornament so that buildings would be true to their essential purpose. The quotation also implies that design should  be efficient, simple,  and elegant in a form consistent  with function.

6

Which  of the following is typically  NOT part  of the project schedule  developed by the architect during  the pro­ gramming process?

 

A.   architectural  services negotiation

B.     pre-design  phase

C.   bidding  time

D.   construction

The answer is A.

Solution

The architect's involvement in scheduling the overall project time frame begins only after the architect is hired, which occurs after negotiating for the architect's services.

Study Note: Know the different types of scheduling tech­ niques, such as the Gantt schedule (or bar chan) and the critical path method  (CPM).

7

While  developing  the  preliminary  project  schedule during the programming phase, which would be the most reliable sources of information  about construction time?

 

I.     an annually  published  cost and scheduling book

II.   historical documents  on similar projects from the architects office

III.  a contracting firm that has done work for the architect in the past

IV:    the construction manager whom the client has hired for the job

 

A.    I and III only

B.    II and III only

C.   II and IV only

D.   III and IV only

The answer  is C.

Solution

Records of similar projects that the architect has maintained would  be a fairly accurate source of information  about  the time required  to build. From this historical data, the archi­ tect could factor in any unique  elements of the new project to arrive at a preliminary schedule  that would work reason­ ably  well  for  programming.   The  best  source  of  current information would be the construction manager who is pan  of the  building  team,  because  that  person  would  have  a great deal of experience with managing construction sched­ ules.

 

Annually published  cost and scheduling books  would  not be a good choice because the scheduling information  they contain is typically based on number of hours or manpower required  to  complete  individual   aspects  of construction. Such  books  would  be  more  useful  for  estimating   time required  to complete  components of the overall project. Asking a contractor  who previously worked with the archi­ tect would  not  be a good  choice  because,  without  assur­ ances that  they would  be awarded  the job, the  contractor  might not be inclined to give accurate information.

8

In reviewing a CPM schedule from the contractor, the architect notices that the critical path is 200 calendar  days, the total float is 30 days, and the contractor is planning  for a 5 day work week. The architect should  advise the client that the construction time

 

A.   will be about 40 weeks

B.    may be as long as 46 weeks

C.   could be shortened to 32 weeks

D.   cannot  be delayed more than 6 weeks

The answer is A.

Solution

The critical path is the sequence of events that must happen as scheduled  in order for a project to be completed  on time. Dividing 5 work days per calendar week into 200 total days gives a 40-week  construction time.

 

Float represents  the range of time during which noncritical activities may stan  or end without affecting the overall schedule.   Total float is  the  individual  float  times  added together, and does not influence the critical path time inter­ val.

9

During  the  bid  phase,  the contractor  hired  to  con­ struct a small shopping mall planned for an 18-month con­ struction   schedule.   After  construction  begins,  the  client notifies the architect  that, due to financing considerations, construction must  be completed three months  earlier than the  original  target  date  for  substantial   completion.  The architect should  recommend that the client

 

A.   hire a different contractor

B.    reduce the scope of the project

C.   replan using a Gantt schedule

D.   authorize  the contractor  to use a fast-track schedule

The answer  is D.

Solution

A fast-track schedule  could  reduce the time of the project from 10% to 30%, and three months would represent  about a 17%  reduction, so this approach  would  be a reasonable alternative. Fast-tracking the project at this point in the construction process  may increase  the  overall  cost  of the project because the contractor  must replan the construction schedule.  The contractor  would likely request  a significant change  order  for this type of modification  to the  original terms of the contract.

 

Hiring a different contractor  would  only increase  the time required,   because   the   new   contractor   would   have   to become familiar with the project and take additional time to prepare a new schedule. Reducing the scope of the project generally only  works to reduce the budget, not the  con­ struction time, and the client would probably not be willing to follow this  course of action. Planning the sequence and scheduling   of construction  operations is  the  contractor's responsibility, not  the owners.  The form of the schedule used does not affect the total construction time; therefore, it would not  be helpful to replan using a Gantt schedule.

10

The statement "develop a multilevel system of pedes­trian circulation" is an example of a

 

A.   need

B.   programming statement

C.    goal

D.   design concept

The answer is D.

Solution

A "multilevel system of pedestrian circulation" implies a definite type of physical solution and describes a design con­ cept. This should  not be confused with a programming state­ ment, which states the problem but does not offer a solution or strategy. A programming statement that might  precede the  design  concept  would  be  something  like  "separate incompatible circulation functions."

11

The developer of a retail shopping complex has esti­mated through  an economic analysis that he can afford to build up to 85,000 ft2  (8000 m2) of gross building area. A central, enclosed pedestrian mall will occupy about 6% of the building, and the efficiency ratio is estimated to be 75%. Approximately how much net rentable area will be available?

 

A.   59,900 ft2      (5640 m2)

B.   63,700 ft2      (6000 m2

C.   67,600 ft2     (6370 m2

D.   107,000 ft2      (10 100m2

The answer is A.

Solution

None of the area of the enclosed mall would be rentable, so subtract  the  6% right off the top. Then take 75% of the remainder.

(85,000 ft2)(0.06) = 5100 ft2

85,000 ft2  - 5100 ft2  = 79,900 ft2

12

A small medical clinic is being planned for a suburban loca­ tion on an open, level site. It is to include services of gen­ eral  practice,   obstetrics/family   planning,   testing   and laboratories, and dental offices, along with medical offices and an administration area. All together  the building will have a net area of about 70,000 ft2  (6500 m2). Access to the building is primarily by automobile.

 

The group developing the project wants the facility to be a comfortable, friendly place that minimizes the anxiety of a visit to the doctor and that makes it as easy as possible to get around. It expects the venture to be successful and each department to grow as the catchment area grows.      

_________________________________________________

In order to meet the goals of the client, which of the following design responses would NOT be appropriate?

 

A.   Base the size of waiting rooms on a behavior setting where establishing territory should be encouraged.

B.  Group the waiting areas and the reception area together to encourage social interaction.

C.   Develop a different color scheme for each of the separate services.

D.   Arrange individual chair seating against walls

and other objects so it faces room entries.

The answer is B.

Solution

Grouping the waiting areas and the reception area to encourage interaction would probably be the least desirable option for two reasons. People are usually a little nervous while waiting with strangers and prefer the option to avoid contact in sociofugal space. In addition, because there are different departments in  a medium-sized  facility, having everyone in one space would be inefficient as well as uncomfortable. One large waiting area would make people feel less at ease and therefore would be counterproductive to the client's goals.

13

A small medical clinic is being planned for a suburban loca­ tion on an open, level site. It is to include services of gen­ eral  practice,   obstetrics/family   planning,   testing   and laboratories, and dental offices, along with medical offices and an administration area. All together  the building will have a net area of about 70,000 ft2  (6500 m2). Access to the building is primarily by automobile.

 

The group developing the project wants the facility to be a comfortable, friendly place that minimizes the anxiety of a visit to the doctor and that makes it as easy as possible to get around. It expects the venture to be successful and each department to grow as the catchment area grows.      

_________________________________________________

Which    of  the   following   organizational  concepts would probably  be most appropriate for this facility?

 

A.    grid

B.     axial

c.  central

D.   radial

The answer is D.

Solution

Because the facility is expected  to grow and because there are  several   distinct   departments,  a  radial   organization would work  for the first phase and allow for easy growth. Because the site is ample and flat, terrain would  probably not restrict this type of organizational pattern. An axial pat­ tern might work, but because everyone enters in one place for directions  and orientation,  the central focus of a radial pattern  would  probably be preferable.

14

A small medical clinic is being planned for a suburban loca­ tion on an open, level site. It is to include services of gen­ eral  practice,   obstetrics/family   planning,   testing   and laboratories, and dental offices, along with medical offices and an administration area. All together  the building will have a net area of about 70,000 ft2  (6500 m2). Access to the building is primarily by automobile.

 

The group developing the project wants the facility to be a comfortable, friendly place that minimizes the anxiety of a visit to the doctor and that makes it as easy as possible to get around. It expects the venture to be successful and each department to grow as the catchment area grows.      

_________________________________________________

Which of the following aspects of flexibility related to expected growth  of the facility is most important in devel­oping the structural framing concept?

 

A.   convertibility

B.   versatility

C.    expandability

D.   all of the above

The answer is C.

Solution

For the first phase of this type of building,  most functions would probably  be fixed, requiring  little need for convert­ ibility in  the  future  or multiple  use initially.  The  primary need of expandability  would determine  the structural fram­ ing system employed  so that  the building could  be added onto easily.

15

Which  of  these  statements  regarding   grading   is FALSE?

 

A.   Grading may extend beyond a site's property lines.

B.     Cut and fill should be balanced.

C.    Topsoil should be stripped, saved, and reapplied after rough grading is complete.

D.    Slopes should be graded within their natural angle of repose.

The answer is A.

Solution

Grading may not extend beyond a sites property lines. Modified contours must always meet up with existing con­ tours within the boundaries of the site.

16

A large company  is planning to construct new corpo­ rate headquarters. The vice president of operations presents a list of personnel,  their positions in the firm, and company­  mandated  space standards to the architect. This list would be described as a

 

A.   facilities program

B.     functional  program

C.    firm program

D.   component program

The answer is B.

Solution

A Junctional  program  provides  raw  data  for  analysis  and development  of a facilities program, which considers scope, area requirements, adjacencies, costs, and site analysis. The functional  program  is usually used  to make the case for a new  facility by  demonstrating that  a  current  facility  no longer meets the inhabitants' needs. The owner prepares a functional program  (but  may be assisted by an architect or programmer)  because  preparation of this type of program requires an in-depth understanding of the operations of the company.

17

Which  of these is true of a vegetated roof? (Choose the four that apply.)

 

A.    It reduces the amount  of stormwater  runoff on a site.

B.     It reduces  the impervious surface area on a site.

C.    It increases the amount  of water that can be harvested  for nonpotable uses such as landscape irrigation and flushing toilets.

D.    It will have a longer lifespan than a conven­tional membrane  roofing system.

E.     It can minimize heat island effects.

F.       It is more expensive to maintain  than a tradi­tional roofing system.

The answer is A, B, D, and E.

Solution

A vegetated roof is a roofing system that consists of a layer of plants and soil contained within an impermeable plastic liner on top of the structural roof assembly. Captured rain­ water is  used   to irrigate the plants, and  the  moisture is released back into the atmosphere through evapotranspira­ tion.  Because  the  rainwater is used for  irrigation of the plants on  the  roof, this technique reduces the amount of water than  can be harvested for other nonpotable uses.

 

A vegetated  roof reduces the impervious surface area on a site; as the depth  of the pan holding the soil and plants increases,  the  runoff coefficient of the surface decreases. Garden roofs have the added advantage of minimizing heat island effects. The roofs may be designed as active gardens requiring tending and watering, or may contain plants that require little  to no maintenance. Generally, the lifespan of a vegetated roof is longer and overall maintenance costs are less than would  be incurred with a conventional roof sys­ tem because  the roofing membrane is protected from ultra­ violet radiation by the layers of organic material.

18

A retaining wall is LEAST likely to fail by

 

A.    spalling

B.     sliding

C.    settling

D.   overturning

The answer is A.

Solution

Retaining walls must resist the force of the soil that they hold back,  the wall's weight, and any additional live loads applied. They are most likely to fail in one of three ways.

•  by sliding, where the lateral thrust on the wall forces the entire  wall to move forward

 

•  by settling, where the vertical force (weight of wall and soil bearing on base) exceeds the bearing capacity of the soil beneath the wall, and the retaining wall sinks

 

•  by overturning, where the overturning moment of the lateral  thrust  causes the wall to rotate forward. The rotation  point is generally the toe of the footing.

 

Spalling is the deterioration of concrete or masonry caused by excessive moisture and is unlikely to cause a retaining wall to fail.

19

The following five activities are completed during the programming phase.

 

•  collect data

•  define the problem

•  develop programmatic concepts

•   owner describes project goals

•  reconcile list of spaces with project budget

 

When they are put in the correct order, which will occur third?

 

A.   collect data

B.    define the problem

C.   develop programmatic concepts

D.   reconcile list of spaces with project budget

The answer is C.

Solution

The correct order of activities is

•   owner describes project goals

•  collect data

•  develop programmatic concepts

•  reconcile list of spaces with project budget

•  define the problem

 

Programming includes a sequence of steps that leads the programmer and owner from a rough idea for a project to a clear statement of the problems and opportunities it  pre­ sents.  These  challenges  will  be  considered  fully   and resolved during the design phase.

 

To begin programming, it is first necessary to describe the project goals. This step includes a discussion of the owner's objectives for the building, problems that must be addressed, and space requirements.

 

Next, the programmer collects data. During this phase, the programmer organizes facts regarding the site, the  occu­ pants, the intended uses and characteristics of the spaces needed, the budget, and the local codes or ordinances that will affect and influence the project.

 

During the third step, the programmer develops schematic diagrams in order to organize the facts collected in the pre­ vious step and present them in a way that is visually clear and comprehensible. These diagrams, which can take many forms, display the sizes and spatial relationships (adjacen­ cies) of the spaces that are needed or desired.

 

Next,  the  programmer  must  reconcile  the  list  of   pro­ grammed spaces with the project budget. Now is the time to adjust the program, the budget, or both, so that the pro­ ject is feasible.

 

Finally, the  programmer defines the  problem.  This is the goal of programming: to define the problem  so that it can be solved during  the design phase. What kind  of building must be built? How are the spaces within it to be related? Where will it be built? How much will it cost? Programming is the process of seeking problems and defining objectives; design is the process of solving the problems  and bringing physical form to those objectives.

20

What is the net-to-gross ratio?

The net-to-gross ratio is found by dividing the net usable area by the gross area, which includes  circulation areas, mechanical rooms, and similar ancillary areas. The desired net usable area is given and the net-to-gross ratio is known, so the needed gross area can be estimated by dividing the net area by the ratio expressed as a decimal.