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Spray-on  fireproofing containing  asbestos was banned from use in building construction in


A. 1968

B. 1973

C. 1980

D. 1989

The answer is B.


The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned  the spray application of asbestos-containing fireproofing mate­ rials in 1973.


In the  renovation of a historic structure, the treatment approach that  attempts to retain the most historic materials and spaces while allowing replacement of damaged exterior materials is


A.   preservation

B.   rehabilitation

c.  restoration

D.   reconstruction

The answer is B.


Rehabilitation emphasizes the retention and repair of  his­ toric materials  but gives some latitude for  replacement of damaged materials.  This is one of the four basic types of treatments that can be applied to historic structures.

Study  Nate: Know the differences among the terms preservation (the most historically accurate),  rehabilita­ tion, restoration, and reconstruction (the least historically accurate).


A client wants to obtain federal tax credits for rehabili­ tation of an  old building that has been designated as a state historic landmark. The architect should inform the client that


A.   new additions or exterior alterations cannot vary from the historic character

B.   a thorough historic survey is required to verify conformity to federal standards

C.   the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation must be met

D.   the cost might exceed the client's budget because state standards must be used

The answer  is C.


The Standards for Rehabilitation (often called the Secretary of the Interiors  Standards for Rehabilitation) developed by the Heritage Preservation Services branch of the National Park Service must be met if federal investment tax credits are to be used.  These standards take precedence over any state or local requirements.


Option A is incorrect because the standards do allow for new additions and alterations to be differentiated from the old while still being compatible in massing, size, scale, and architectural features. Option B is incorrect because a sur­ vey and study of the subject property in itself does not guar­ antee conformance with the federal standards. Option D is incorrect  because  a cost  higher  than  the  budget  is  not related to the ability to receive a federal tax credit.


According to the United States Survey system, a sec­ tion of land is a square shape. The dimension  along the sides of the square is most nearly


A.   0.5 mi

B.   1 mi

C.  6mi

D.   24mi

The answer is B.


A section is a 1 mi square parcel of land containing 640 ac. A check is an area 24 mi on a side bounded by parallels and meridians. A township is 6 mi on a side. A quarter section is 0.5 mi on a side.

Study Note: The United States Survey system, begun in 1784, divided U.S. land that was not already surveyed into  a square  grid system of meridians 24  mi apart. These squares are called checks. Each check is divided into 16 townships, each 6 mi on a side. Each township is further divided into 36 1 mi wide sections of land. The sections are further divided into quarter sections, and each quarter section is then quartered.


Be aware that an acre ofland is equal to 43,560 ft2.  (One hectare of land is equal to 10000  m2 .)


Terms to Know

baseline: a parallel used as a primary starting point for the east-west layout of the U.S. survey system guide meridian: a meridian between the principal meridians meridian: north-south lines that follow the longitudes of the earth and that are used as the basis for the U.S. sur­ vey system metes-and-bounds   property description: a verbal  descrip­ tion of land that begins at a known point and describes the bearing and length of each side of the  property, in tum, until the point of beginning is reached parallels: east-west lines that follow the latitudes of the earth principal meridian: a meridian that serves as the basis for the north-south  grid layout of the U.S. survey system range: the row of townships running north and south from a principal meridian, given a number  to describe where it is located north and south of a baseline standard  parallels: parallels between the baselines in the U.S. survey system township: the row of townships running east and west from a baseline, given a number to describe where it is located east or west of a principal meridian


An architect is asked to calculate the rentable area of the following office space according to the BOMA Office Stan­ dard (ANSIIBOMA Z65.1). The columns are 1ft by 1ft (305 by 305). The exterior walls are 1 ft (305) thick and the inside face of the glass is 6 in (152) from the inside face of the inte­ rior wall. The corridor walls and demising walls are 4 in (102) thick. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

The answer is B.


Calculations of the rentable area of an office follow different rules from calculations of the architectural area of a space. To calculate the rentable area of a space, use the following guidelines.

•        When  measuring  from  an  exterior  wall  in  which more  than  50% of the wall is glass, measure  from the inside  face of the glass.

•      Measure  to  the  inside  face  of  walls  between  the office and the corridor.

•        Measure to the centerline  of demising walls, or walls between  tenants.

•        The rentable area would also include a share of com­mon restrooms and corridors


The distance from the most remote point in a build­ing to the nearest exit is called the


A.   common  path of egress travel

B.   length of exit discharge travel

C.   exit separation  distance

D.   exit access travel distance

The answer is D. 


The exit access travel distance is the distance a building occu­pied portion of the exit access to the entrance  of the nearest exit access that the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct  paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Option  B is incorrect  because  there  is no such thing as length  of exit discharge travel. Option  C is incor­ rect because exit separation distance refers to the minimum  distance by which  two exits must  be separated when  two exits are required.

Study Note: Review the International Building Code for exiting nomenclature and definitions related to egress.


The owner of the lot shown wants to develop a building with a maximum allowable gross swuare footage. If the floor area ratio (FAR) is 2.0 and the owner builds only full stories to the setback lines, how high will the building be?

A. two stories

B. three stories

C. four stories

D. five stories

The answer is B.


The area of the lot is 60,000 ft2 (60,000 m2).  Ifthe floor area ratio is 2,  the  maximum  amount  of floor area that can be built is 120,000 ft2  (120,000 m2).  The available ground area that  can  be covered  within  the  setbacks  is 270  ft times 130 ft, or  35,100 ft2  (270m times 130m, or 35,100  m2). Dividing this figure into 120,000  gives 3.42 stories, which indicates that three full stories can be built.


In planning a new building,  an architect would have to look at  regulations other  than  the zoning  ordinance  to find a requirement for which of the following? (Choose the four that apply.)


A.    the width  of loading berths

B.     the  required size of utility easements

C.    minimum lot size

D.   parking area size

E.    permissible roof coverings

F.     allowable  color schemes

The answer is B, C, E, and F


The required size of utility easements would  be found  on the site survey.  If a site survey had not been performed,  the information would  come from the  utility company.  Mini­ mum lot size  is usually a part of a subdivision regulation. Roof coverings would  be  prescribed  either  in  restrictive covenants  for  the  property  or as part of a  building  code. Covenants  would  dictate  the  type and  appearance  of the material for aesthetic reasons, such as prescribing allowable color  schemes, whereas  the  building  code  would  specify types of roofing based primarily on fire-resistance needs.


Which of these can zoning  ordinances  do? (Choose the four that  apply.)


A.   influence building form

B.     determine the allowable flooring loading based on occupancy

C.   stabilize  property values

D.   determine required amounts  of parking

E.   allow city governments  to predict infrastructure needs

F.     establish  the required number  of toilet facilities at a municipal  stadium

The answer is A, C, D, and E.


Zoning ordinances  are enacted in municipalities  to control what types of structures are built in certain locations. Zon­ ing  requirements such  as setbacks,  floor  area  ratios, and height  limitations  influence  the  form  of the building  that can be constructed on a site and consequently influence the appearance  of a neighborhood. Zoning regulations prohibit construction of incongruent building types within a specific area; for example,  zoning ordinances would likely separate residential neighborhoods from heavy industrial uses, help­ ing to stabilize property  values. Zoning also helps govern­ ments   plan   for  the  future   by   restricting   the   capacity


of the land and helping  predict the types and capacities of utility systems necessary in a specific area.


Which  of the following are required  components of an incentive zoning plan?


I.      base floor area ratio

II.   floor area ratio cap

Ill.  bonus ratio

IV   bonus cap


A.   I and II

B.   I and Ill

c.  II and Ill

D.   I, II, Ill, and IV

The answer is B.


Incentive zoning is a way to encourage  private developers to provide amenities for public use in exchange for the oppor­ tunity to build a larger or taller structure on a site. An exam­ ple  of incentive  zoning  is the  bonus  floor  area  given  to developers  of New York City skyscrapers  who  include  a public plaza on the ground floor level.


Incentive zoning  plans must include  a base floor area ratio (the standard  against which to compare) and a bonus ratio­ the floor area ratio (FAR) that is provided if the public space is a part of the design. The plans may include caps on the FAR and  the  bonus  FAR-for example,  a  bonus  may be given  for  providing   public  parking   in  an  underground

garage to increase from the base FAR of 1.5, but the bonus FAR may not exceed 2. For incentive zoning to truly be an incentive,  the value of the additional  (leasable) floor area must exceed the cost of providing the public amenity.


According to ADAAG, what is the minimum width of an accessible parking space?


A.   96 in (2440)

B.     102 in (2590)

C.    108 in (2745)

D.   120 in (3050)

The answer is A.


Accessible parking spaces must be a minimum of 96 in, or 8ft  (2440), wide. An access alley at least 60 in (1525) wide for cars and at least 96 in (2440) wide for vans must be pro­ vided adjacent to the space.


A three-story speculative office building has a  foot­ print of 6724 ft2 (625m2).  The floors are equal in size. The building is sited on a 1.5 ac (0.61 ha) parcel. The floor area ratio is approximately


A.   0.1:1

B.   0.3:1

c.  0.6:1

D.   1:1

The answer is B.


The floor area ratio expresses the relationship between the square footage of the building and the area of the site on which it is constructed. Zoning ordinances often set limits on the maximum floor area ratio allowed within a region as a means of controlling development density.


Which of the following would NOT be included in a zoning ordinance?


A.   maximum building heights

B.   minimum parking requirements

C.   maximum numbers of occupants

D.   minimum setbacks from property lines

The answer is C.


A zoning ordinance is a set of rules enacted by a local gov­ erning body or by a board that the governing body has des­ ignated, such as a zoning or planning commission. This set of rules regulates the  types of  building and development that are permitted in certain areas of a jurisdiction.


Zoning ordinances specify what uses are permitted in cer­ tain areas and may separate the land within the jurisdiction into commercial, industrial, and residential zones. In addi­ tion, zoning ordinances typically dictate how a site may be developed, by establishing floor area  ratios, minimum lot sizes and dimensions, maximum lot coverage requirements, maximum building heights, minimum setbacks from prop­ erty lines, and parking requirements.


Sometimes a zoning ordinance gives different requirements from the building code in effect in the same region. This often happens, for example, with requirements for  maxi­ mum height and area. Building codes determine these max­ imums  on  the basis of occupancy  groups  and  types of construction,  modified  by  factors such  as  whether  the building will be sprinklered  and whether  access for fire­ fighting equipment  will be provided.  If  the local zoning ordinance and the building code give different maximum heights or areas, the lower of the two takes precedence.


A zoning ordinance would not set a maximum number of occupants permitted in a structure. This requirement is established by the building code in the jurisdiction, in accordance with the  occupancy group and  type of  con­ struction of the building.


Each  area listed below is included in the plans for the construction of a new high school. Which areas do NOT have to comply with ADA Accessibility Guidelines? (Choose the four that apply.)


A.    copy room designated "faculty only"

B.   lifeguard tower within the indoor pool area

C.    catwalks for auditorium lighting

D.   contractor's on-site construction trailer

E.    temporary passageway during construction for pedestrian access to the football field

F.    referee stand at a volleyball game

The answer is B, C, D, and F


The ADA Accessibility Guidelines state that all newly designed or  newly constructed areas must meet accessibil­ ity requirements. This includes all employee work areas and all temporary construction that is open to the public (such as a  protected walkway, temporary  seating for a special event, and  so forth).


The following areas are not required to be accessible.

•  temporary facilities associated with  the  process of construction Qob site trailer, scaffolding)

•  raised  areas used primarily for security or life safety (lifeguard  tower, security guard tower)

•  non-occupiable service areas accessed infrequently for   maintenance  or  monitoring   (catwalks,   pent­ houses, pump rooms)

•  single  occupant  structures  accessed from above or below grade (such as a tollbooth accessed through an underground  tunnel)

•  raised structures for officiating sporting events

•  water slides

•  nonpublic animal containment areas

•  raised  boxing and wrestling rings


Which of the following areas may exits pass through? (Choose the three that apply.)


A.   office reception areas

B.   building lobbies

c.  unoccupied storage areas

D.   apartment entries

E.   kitchens

F.    stairwells

The answer is A, B, D, and F


The International Building Code specifically states that exits cannot pass through kitchens; through storerooms, closets, or other spaces used for similar purposes; or through rooms that can be locked to prevent egress. Lobbies, reception areas, entries, and stairwells may all be parts of the path of egress. However, to be part of an exit, a space is not per­ mitted  to be locked from the inside  under  any  circum­ stances.


An architect is planning a 30 ft by 35 ft addition to a community library. The entire addition will be a single large meeting room. This room will be used for "story hour" and other library programs, and will also be made available to community organizations for meetings and presentations. The space will be open with no fixed seating. Using the information in the table shown, what is the maximum occu­ pancy of this space?

The answer is D.


A library or community hall is classified as an A-3 (Assem­ bly)  occupancy   according  to  the  International  Building Code. If fixed seating is provided, the number of occupants equals the number of seats. Where no fixed seating is pro­ vided, the designer must refer to IBC Table I004.l.I to cal­ culate the occupancy  of a space.


The maximum  occupancy  of the space is the greatest possi­ ble number of occupants  as calculated using the IBC table. If tables and chairs are provided, each occupant is allocated IS ft2 . If the  room  will be arranged  with rows of seating each person  occupies  7 ft2 . If occupants  are standing,  each is allocated 5 ft2 of standing  space.


The usage that  allocates the least space per occupant  will give the greatest occupancy, so dividing the area of the room by 5 ft2  gives in the maximum  occupancy of this space.


A new restaurant  has a maximum  occupancy  of 300 people.   For   all  exits,   the   building   code   requires   an allowance of 0.2 in (5) per occupant.  Calculate the mini­ mum number and size of exits.


A.   one exit, 5 ft 0 in (I524) pair of doors

B.    one exit, 6 ft 0 in (1829) pair of doors

C.   two exits, two 30 in (762) doors

D.   two exits, two 3ft 0 in (9I4)  doors

The answer is D. 


Because there are more than 50 occupants in this space, two exits must be provided. These exits must be separate and a certain minimum distance apart so that a fire is unlikely to block both. To calculate the minimum  size of the required exits from the space, multiply the maximum number of occupants  by 0.2 in (5) per occupant.

In U.S. units:


300 occupants X  0.2 in/occupant= 60 in


Becasuse two exits must be provided, the minimum width per exit would be 30 in. however, accessibility standards and component requirements both call for a min­ imum  clear opening  width  of 32 in  (813)  for  each  door. This  width  is generally  achieved  by  using  a  36 in  (9I4)  door. Therefore, the best answer is two exits, two 3 ft 0 in (9I4) doors.


The abbreviated  table shown  includes  requirements for occupancy loads. A restaurant  on the ground  floor con­tains 3500sqft of dining area, a 1000sqft kitchen and a 1200sqft bar area. What is the total occupant load?

The answer is B


From the table, assembly areas, including restaurants  and bars,  have an  occupant  load  of IS.  Commercial  kitchens have an occupant load of 200. Therefore,


Under the International  Building Code, which of the following are correct statements?


I.     Fire zone 3 is the most restrictive.

II.   Required fire resistance of exterior, nonbearing  walls is determined by type of construction, occupancy, and distance from property lines.

III.  Exit doors must swing in the direction of travel.

IV   The legal basis for building codes in the United States is the  U.S. Constitution.

V    Occupant load is independent of occupancy group.


A.        I, III, and IV only

B.        II, III, and V only

C.        II, IV, and V only

D.        I, II, IV, and V only

The Answer is C.


Fire zone  l , not 3, is the most restrictive. Exit doors must swing in the direction of travel only when the occupant load is greater than 50.


The other three statements are true. Occupant load is dependent only  on the  uses given in IBC Table 1004.1.2 and the various factors based on net or gross floor area.