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Flashcards in Environmental/Toxicology Deck (46)
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1

Normal body temperature

37.0 C
(98.6 F)

2

Mild hypothermia temperature (C), common signs

32-36 C

slowing heart rate, shivering

3

Moderate hypothermia temperature (C), common signs

28-32 C

loss of shivering, altered LoC, reduced drug metabolism

4

Severe hypothermia temperature (C), common signs

5

Two major causes of heat loss

evaporation, radiation

6

Thermoregulation ceases at what temp

28 C

7

What is the appropriate and inappropriate drug for treating stimulant overdose (cocaine, meth)?

Appropriate: benzodiazepines, nitro
Inappropriate: B-blockers

8

Signs of digoxin toxicity

Blurry vision, including green/yellow halos
Abnormal EKG, prolonged PR

"Dig-dip" is not sign of toxicity, only that PT is on digoxin

9

Acetaminophen overdose proceeds in how many distinct stages? Each lasting about how long?

4 stages
24 hrs

10

The most common drug overdose in the USA is:

Acetaminophen - responsible for the most ED visits and most admissions to ICU

11

Describe stage 1 of acetaminophen overdose

0-24hrs
GI upset (N/V), may be asymptomatic

12

Describe stage 2 of acetaminophen overdose

24-48 hrs
N/V, RUQ pain, elevation of liver enzymes

13

Describe stage 3 of acetaminophen overdose

48-96 hrs
Acute liver failure (jaundice, abnormal coags, encephalopathy)

14

Describe stage 4 of acetaminophen overdose

>96 hrs
Death from liver failure or recovery (full recovery up to 3 months)

15

Describe the initial presentation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) overdose

N/V, headache, tinnitus, tachypnea

16

Tylenol overdose is any ingestion greater than

200mg/kg

17

Aspirin overdose is any ingestion greater than

approx 150mg/kg

18

The antidote for tylenol overdose is

N-acetylcysteine (NAC aka Mucomyst)

19

Defibrillation of a hypothermia PT is often not effective until body temperature is

30 degC

20

Define afterdrop in the hypothermic patient

Prehospital external warming results in cold blood returning to core, increased risk of dysrhythmia

21

What transfusion reaction occurs within minutes of administration?

Acute hemolytic reaction - donor blood rapidly destroyed by host antibodies, usually caused by ABO type incompatibility

22

Anaphylactic reaction to blood transfusion most often occurs after how long

>30 minutes

23

The antidote for coumadin toxicity is

Vitamin K, FFP

24

Treatment for digitalis toxicity includes

Digibind, pacing for severe bradycardia

25

The antidote for malignant hyperthermia is

Dantroline

26

What are the signs of malignant hyperthermia in the vented patient?

Recent administration of succinylcholine or anesthetic gas
Rapid, uncorrectable elevation of ETCO2
May see elevated temp, muscle rigidity

27

The most critical, life-saving treatment for heat stroke is

Rapid, active external cooling (submersion, ice sheets)

28

The most common type of decompression injury from diving is

Pulmonary (the "chokes") - presents like PE
May also cause neuro symptoms

29

How can arterial gas embolism (AGE) may be differentiated from decompression illness (DCI)?

AGE is rapid onset (

30

Two types of decompression illness are:

The "bends" - severe joint pain
The "chokes" - respiratory or neuro symptoms