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Flashcards in Neurological Deck (42)
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1

Anterior spinal cord injury

Caused by ischemic injury to the anterior aspect of spinal cord due to occlusion of anterior spinal artery, which is most commonly occur as a consequence of non traumatic process, although it can be traumatic. The anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord contains corticospinal and spinothalamic tracts, which are affected in this syndrome.

2

Brown-Sequard cord injury

Result of a hemicord lesion (i.e damage or impairment to the left or right side of the spinal cord).

3

Central cord injury

The most common type of incomplete spinal cord injury, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. 

Most often occurs in older persons with degenerative disk disease; however, it may also be seen in younger persons who sustain trauma to the cervical spine, typically after an athlete spears another with their head, or a diving injury

4

Autonomic Dysreflexia

5

Cerebral perfusion pressure is calculated

CPP = MAP - ICP

6

Increasing ICP is most easily seen with what clinical change?

Changing level of consciousness

7

What is Doll's eyes reflex?  What does it indicate?

Ability to stay fixed on a point when head is turned (eyes move opposite of head direction)

 

Absence indicates midbrain/pons injury

8

What is Brudzinski's sign?  What does it indicate?

A stiff neck that causes knees/hips to bend when neck is flexed.

 

Meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage

9

A trauma patient with hypotension, normal HR, and pink/dry skin may have what type of shock?

Neurogenic/spinal shock

10

Signs of uncal herneation include

(1) Abnormal posture and poor GCS. There may be pupillary dilation and loss of light reflex due to direct compression of the oculomotor nerve. 

11

What is a transcalvarial herneation?

(4) The brain herneates through an open skull fracture (or surgical site)

12

What is a cingulate (subfalcine) herneation?

(3) The brain (frontal lobe) is scraped under part of the falx cerebri, the dura mater at the top of the head between the two hemispheres of the brain.

 

This can cause abnormal blood flow, leading to a dangerous increase in ICP

13

Vomiting from a head injury is due to increased pressure on what structure?

The area postrema in the medulla oblongata

14

Normal cerebral perfusion pressure is

70-90 mmHg

15

Normal ICP is

0-10 mmHg

16

What two "electrolytes" are most important to maintain in a head-injured patient

glucose and sodium

17

Cushing's triad typically has what findings?

Bradycardia

Hypertension / wide pulse pressure

Abnormal respiratory pattern

18

An epidural hematoma usually involves what type of blood vessel

Arteries

19

A subdural hematoma usually involves what type of blood vessels?

Veins

20

A subarachnoid hematoma typically involves what type of blood vessels?

Arteries

21

Usual presentation for a subarachnoid hemorrhage is

Sudden, severe headache

22

Usual presentation for an epidural hematoma is

Loss of consciousness followed by a lucid period

23

What is Babinski's reflex?  What does it indicate?

  • Plantor extensor reflex
  • Is present/absent, not normal/abnormal
  • Indicates upper motor neuron (brain stem) injury (age >2) 

24

Bell's Palsy affects what cranial nerve?

CN VII

25

How does Bell's palsy differ from acute CVA?

Bell's Palsy always affects upper and lower face without other symptoms.

CVA affects lower face with other, associated symptoms.

26

What cranial nerves controls eye movement, pupil dilation, and pupil accomodation?

CN III (oculomotor)

CN IV (trochlear)

CN VI (abducens)

27

What cranial nerve transmits visual informaition?

CN II (optic)

28

What cranial nerve controls the sense of smell?

CN I (olfactory)

29

What cranial nerve controls facial sensation and chewing?

CN V (trigeminal)

30

What cranial nerve controls movement of the facial muscles?

CN VII (facial)