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Flashcards in Enzymes Deck (64)
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1

Describe a cell

Small a lot of reactions occur
-cell extracts energy stored in sugars and other fuels and us to perform work

2

Organisms metabolism

All of an organisms chemical reactions
-Begins with a specific molecules and ends with a product
-each step is catalyzed by a enzyme
-transformation of matter and energy
-subjected to the laws of thermodynamics

3

Catabolic pathways

-breakdown complex molecules into simpler compounds to create/make energy

4

Example of catabolic pathway

Cellular respiration
-breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen

5

Anabolic pathways

use/consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones

6

Example of anabolic pathway

synthesis of proteins from amino acids

7

Energy

Is the capacity to cause change
- they can be converted from one form to another
-some forms can perform work

8

Bioenergetics

study of how energy flows through living organisms

9

Kinetic Energy

energy associated with motion

10

Example of Kinetic Energy

Heat (thermal) energy
-movement of atoms or molecules

11

Potential Energy

Energy that matter posses because of its location or structure

12

Chemical Energy

form of potential energy
-released in a chemical reaciton

13

Forms of Energy

Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Chemical Energy

14

Example of Transformation from potential energy to kinetic energy?

Diving
-converts potential energy to kinetic energy
-Diver has more potential energy on the platform
-Diver has less potential energy in the water
-Climibing up converts the kinetic energy of muscles movement to potential energy

15

Themordynamics

the study of energy stransformations

16

Isolated System

System unable to exchange energy or matter with surroundings

17

Open system

System and surroundings can exchange energy and matter

18

Which type of system do living organisms represent?

Open system

19

1st law of thermodynamics

-AKA principle of conservation of energy
-Energy of the universe is conserved
-Energy can neither be created nor destroyed

20

2nd law of thermodynamics

Cells require a constant input of Energy to maintain high level of organization
AND
-energy transfer/transformation increases the entropy of the universe

21

Consequence of 1st law of Thermo:

we can't obtain all necessary E from environment
CANT MAKE ENERGY themself

22

Entropy and Spontaneity

Living cells convert organized forms of energy to heat adding to the spontaneity
-spontaneous processes occur without energy input
-they can occur quickly or slowly
-without energy they must increase the entropy of the universe

23

Example of a Spontaneous process that is quick

Evaporation of water

24

Example of a spontaneous process that is slow

oxidation of metals

25

Biological order and disorder

Cells Create ordered structures from less ordered materials
-organims can also replace ordered forms of matter and energy with less ordered forms

26

In what form does energy flow into an ecosystem?

form of light and exists in the form of heat

27

Evolution and adaption effects on entropy

entropy(disorder) may decrease in an organism but the universes total entropy increases

28

Delta G

Free energy change of a reaction
-tells us whether or not the reactions occur spontaneously

29

What is a living systems free energy

energy that can do work when temperature and pressure are uniform
-aka living cell

30

Negative Delta G means

Spontaneous reaction