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1

Which of the following is (are) true for anabolic pathways:
A) They do not depend on enzymes
B) They are usually highly spontaneous chemical reactions
C) They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers
D) They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers
E) They consume energy to decrease the entropy of the organism and its environment

C. They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers

2

Which of the following is(are) true for anabolic pathways?
A) They do not depend on enzymes
B) They are usually highly spontaneous chemical reactions
C) They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.
D) They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers
E) They consume energy to decrease the entropy of the organism and its environment

C) They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers

3

Which of the following is a statement of the first law of Thermodynamics?
A) Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
B) The entropy of the universe is decreasing.
C) The entropy of the universe is constant.
D) Kinetic energy is stored that results from the specific arrangement of matter.
E) Energy cannot be transferred or transformed.

A) Energy cannot be created or destroyed.

4

For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
A) The energy of an organism is constant.
B) The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy from its environment.
C) The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity.
D) Organisms grow by converting energy into organic matter.
E) Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.

B) The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy from its environment.

5

Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow, resulting in a decrease in the entropy of an organism. How does this result to the second law of thermodynamics?
A) Living organisms do not obey the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy must increase with time.
B) Life obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as the organism grows is exactly balanced by an increase in entropy of the universe.
C) Living organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics.
D) As a consequence of growing, organisms cause a greater increase in entropy in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth.
E) Living organisms are able to transfer energy into entropy

D) As a consequence of growing, organisms cause a greater increase in entropy in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth.

6

Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the:
A) free energy of the system
B) free energy of the universe
C) entropy of the system
D) entropy of the universe
E) enthalpy of the universe

D) entropy of the universe

7

Which of the following statements is a logical consequence the second law of thermodynamics?
A) If the entropy of a system increases, there must be a corresponding decrease in the entropy of the universe.
B) If there is an increase in the energy of a system, there must be a corresponding decrease in the energy of the rest of the universe.
C) Every energy transfer requires activation energy from the environment.
D) Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.
E). Energy can be transferred or transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

D) Every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe.

8

Which of the following statements is representative of the second law of thermodynamics?
A) Conversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some gain of free energy.
B) Heat represents a form of energy that can be used by most organisms to do work.
C) Without an input of energy, organisms would tend toward decreasing entropy.
D) Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.
E) Every energy transformation by a cell decreased the entropy of the universe.

D) Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.

9

Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
A) Anabolic reactions
B) Hydrolysis
C) Respiration
D) Digestion
E) Catabolic reactions

A) Anabolic reactions

10

Biological evolution of life on Earth, from simple prokaryote-like cells to larger, multicellular eukaryotic organisms...
A) has occurred to accordance with the laws of thermodynamics.
B) has caused an increase in the entropy of the planet.
C) Has been made possible by expending Earth's energy resources.
D) Has occurred in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics, by expending Earth's energy and causing an increase in the entropy of the planet.
E) violate the laws of thermodynamics because Earth is a closed system.

A) has occurred to accordance with the laws of thermodynamics.